Kalinova

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Kalinovan State

Kalynowszchzyna
Flag of Kalinova
Flag
Coat of Arms of Kalinova
Coat of Arms
Motto: Myr i Dostatok
"Peace and Abundance"
Location of Kalinova in Adonia
Location of Kalinova in Adonia
Capital
and largest city
Malynogorod
Official languagesKalinovan
Ethnic groups
82.5% Kalinovan
10.1% Karay
4.2% Noghay
3.2% Other
Demonym(s)Kalinovan
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic with elective monarchistic features
• Vozhd
Kazymyr Federyczyn
• Premier
Stanislaw Oleyczuk
LegislatureVecze
Formation
9th century
1748
• Kalinovan State
1782
Area
• Total
4,526,519 km2 (1,747,699 sq mi)
Population
• 2019 estimate
241,263,463
• 2016 census
235,378,988
• Density
52/km2 (134.7/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
₭7.608 trillion (??th)
• Per capita
₭32,324 (??th)
Gini (2016)38.7
medium · ??th
HDI (2016)0.901
very high · ??th
Currency(£) Lipa (KAL)
Time zoneTBC
Date formatmm.dd.yyyy CE
Driving sideright
Internet TLD.ka

Kalinova (Kalinovan: Kalynowa, Kalynova), officially the Kalinovan State (Kalinovan: Kalynowszchzyna, Kalynovshchyna), is a country in south-eastern Illypnia , it borders Breisland to the west, West Lapland, East Lapland, the Gulf of Kalinova, Uppland, Livland, Latgalia to the south, Galastan to the east, and Sayastan, Comania, Camarstan, and Lusatia to the north. Kalinova borders 11 different countries, more than any other country on Adonia. With a total area of over 4 million square kilometers, it is the ... largest country in the world, and with a population of over 235 million, it is also the ... most populated country on Adonia.

The beginnings of Kalinova arose with the arrival of various <Turkic> tribes living in the forests and valleys of the country, engaging primarily in a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. In the 6th century AD, <Slavic> peoples arrived from the north, forcing the <turkics> from the land. Various <Slavic> tribes were settled, primarily in western Kalinova. By the 10th century, these tribes reorganized into trading posts and cities, leading to the rise of merchant and guild classes that dominated the region. In the 9th century, many such settlements in Central Kalinova developed into the League of the Kalii River, a trade federation. The League expanded to include most of modern-day western and central Kalinova by the 15th century. While Malynogorod gradually rose in influence as the center of the League, the Vecze attempted to centralize the federation, though inefficiently. In the 17th century, the League was facing many issues, including a bloated bureaucracy, high taxes, a stagnant economy, and an ineffective administration. The League collapsed in 1689 and broke into various city states vying for survival.

In the 18th century, with the Vecze attempting to place itself back into a position of power, Radymir Yurewsky became Vozhd of the Vecze, placing the Vecze as a legislator of a new Kalinovan state. He consolidated power in Malynogorod and gradually integrated the breakaway city states back into control of the Vecze, both through diplomatic and military means. After a major conflict with Breisland, Yurewsky garnered the necessary support to officially proclaim a unified Kalinova. After his death, the Vecze successfully sought to it to ensure continuation of his reforms to the government system. This fostered stability in Kalinova that lead to a successful recovery of the economy and administration of the country.

In the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution spread to Kalinova. In this period, the population began to gradually move into urban centers, especially in the east. By the 20th century Kalinova's industrial output per capita was in the highest quartile globally. By the 1930s Kalinova's military began to revamped as the Great Adonian War raged in Illypnia. After an invasion of Breisland in the latter years of the war, Kalinova contributed to bringing the war to the stalemate that ended the war in an armistice. Kalinova thus established itself as a formidable power and an important counterweight to Breisland, who up until that point had an unchallenged hegemonic power status. After the war, Kalinova began transitioning to a service-based economy, however the agricultural and resource extraction sectors remain large contributors to gross domestic product, being a significant exporter of both.

Kalinova is today considered a great power, with potential to rise to the rank of superpower, and a world-class economy wielding great influence over Southern Illypnia and Fosia. Once a nuclear power, domestic pressure and an international agreement led to the destruction of all of Kalinova's nuclear weapons. Closely allied with Breisland and Skade, Kalinova had great influence in the establishment of the Adonian Community. Today, Kalinova is a member of the Adonian Community, the Subuyan Economic Union, ... .

Etymology

The name "Kalinova" comes from the Kalii River which forms the backbone of Kalinova geographically and culturally, and is most notable for being the river along which Kalinova as a nation developed. The origin of the name "Kalii" itself is unknown, but could be related to the red vibernum, which in Kalinovan is called ‘’kalyna’’. The relationship between the names perhaps comes from the fact that the red vibernum has been abundant in the Kalii River valley, which became significant as the flowering bush became a national symbol of Kalinova, the flower produced by the plant even being found on the Kalinovan flag.

A much more popular theory behind the name of Kalinova is that it wasn’t named after the Kalii River, but directly after the kalyna. The name “Kalinova” is first recorded after the kalyna had already become a popular cultural symbol used by the tribal Kalinovans, as evidenced by the use of the flower in various birch bark letters and documents dated back to the 7th century. It can be said that the native Kalinovans applied “Kalinova” to the homeland as “the land of the kalyna”.

In Kalinovan, there exists a distinction between ethnic Kalinovans and Kalinovan nationals. Kalinowcy and Kalinowjany mean “ethnic Kalinovan” and “Kalinovan national”, respectively. This distinction is mainly associated with the suffixes of the two words. In Kalinovan, the suffix “-cy” turns the root noun into an adjective while the suffix “-jany” denotes the subject's nationality as that of the root noun. This distinction is not found in Breislandic and the two meanings are designated by Kalinowiener/Kalinowierin and Kalinowischer Staatbürger/Kalinowische Staatbürgerin, respectively, though the former is used to mean both in general use. The Kalinovan language distinction is similar to the distinction between “Volisan” and “Volisanian” in Volisania.

The question of the correct translation of the Kalinovan term, "Kalynowszczyna" is a matter of debate. Historically, the suffix -szczyna in Kalinovan has been used to signify that the root noun is a geographical region. After the resurgence of the Vecze rule under the supervision of Radymir Yurewsky, "Kalynowszczyna" began to be used by Yurewsky and Veczemen as the official title of the nation. As a result, the suffix began to also denote that the root noun could be a centralized state, somewhat likened to the Breislandic "Reich". However, it's still used as alternative names for oblasts (i.e. Lwiwszczyna), Consequently, the officially sanctioned Breislandic title is "das Kalinowisches Reich". Similarly, the Mercian title of the country is the "Kalinovan State".

The other commonly used name for Kalinova, popularized under Radymir Yurewsky, is the term Riczpospolita, directly translated as "the Republic". This term is the calque of the Mesogean word for republic, where "ricz" and "pospolita" correspond to the "res" ("thing") and "publica" ("public, common") of the etymology of the Mesogean term. The term had been used extensively under Yurewsky's rule before becoming less frequently used. Under Boris Irkyshnikov, the term became more widely used. Today, the term is still used as an alternative name for Kalinova, both domestically and in the wider Subuyan sphere, where the term is transliterated into the various languages of the region. It is important to note that the term is only used for Kalinova, while the Kalinovan transliteration of the Mesogean "respublica", "respublika", is used for other republics.

History

Tribal Kalinova

Prehistoric Kalinova was mainly marked by a period of nomadic activity. <culture> from <lel> hunted game in Kalinova, occasionally setting up temporary villages. By the 2nd century before the common era, permanent cities began sprouting along the Kalii River, mostly by the Batukha people, who were most likely <Turkic>. These cities were walled and even traded with other regions, especially ... and ... . The Batukhas developed a sophisticated civilization, with their own unique art and writing style. For unknown reasons, though speculated to be due to drought or famine, these cities were abandoned and many of those who survived calamity returned to a nomadic lifestyle. Before the 6th century of the common era, Kalinova was mostly inhabited by <culture> from <lel>, but most were expelled by invading Slavs from the north. By the 8th century, the culture makeup of Kalinova was mostly homogeneous, especially in the west.

After the Slavic invasion of Kalinova during the 6th century, the <Turkic> peoples of Kalinova were expelled, and many Slavs roamed through the ruins of the cities previously abandoned by the Butakha people. For over two centuries, most of these Slavs dwelled in tribes, mostly along the major bodies of water in the western half of modern-day Kalinova. Based on birch bark evidence and historic chroniclers from the 12th-14th centuries, from the 6th to 8th centuries, Kalinovan tribes tended to follow democratic principles, as decisions were made when agreed upon by all members. Tribes tended to worship traditional <Slavic> deities, forming the basis for the Rodnovirie faith. While beginning as hunter-gatherers, many tribes began to adopt agriculture by the 9th century.

League of the Kalii River

By the 9th century, many tribes developed into cities and then city states. Most of these cities retained the democratic ideals of the tribes, forming city republics. Merchants dealing in trade between the city republics would soon hold prominence in these cities, and began to develop trade agreements across the country. These trade agreements became increasingly standardized, eventually forming the basis for a large trade league. Malynogorod, which had sprung at the head of the Kaliy River at Zeleno Lake, grew into prominence due to its strategic location among various trade routes running through the South Illypnian Plain. The city became the center of this trade league. In order to administer trade policies and facilitate arbitration between the city republics, a legislature, known as the Vecze, was formed. At least once a year, the Vecze would convene in order to resolve trade disagreements and to set rules for trade both within the League and outside.

After the turn of the 10th century, Breislandic missionaries began attempting to spread Christianity to the Kalinovan people. Few saw success, as many missionaries were denounced by the priests of Rodnovirie as heathens. In the breakout of the Two Centuries War, the Kalinovans supported the Breislandic Empire in exchange for decreased missionary activity, marking the first significant instance of the Vecze dictating League foreign policy. This decreased activity allowed for a restructuring of the Rodnovirie faith. In 1411, priests from around the region met at the Council of Rozdil to reform the religion. Many brought notable Christian features into the Rodnovirie fold, especially a Holy Text, the idea of an afterlife, and a religious hierarchy centered on the All-Holy of Malynogorod, the spiritual leader of the Rodnovirians. The Council standardized the religion, and it was this that allowed for the polytheistic religion to be able to resist efforts of the Christian missionaries to convert Kalinova.

By the 15th century as the Two Centuries War came to a close, the League of the Kalii River had already recognized its inferior military strength in the light of aggressors both to the north and to the west. In an effort to resolve this issue, the Vecze recognized the need to centralize power and form a common military. While the development of the common military was successful, efforts at centralization saw mixed results. The wide variety of influence of the various city republics, some of which had even expanded their territory within the league, meant that there was hardly ever agreement when deciding political and administrative policies. Larger city republics tended to resist the development of a central government entity, while smaller ones were strongly supportive of such a move. Consequently, many compromises had to be made. Most of these consequences resulted in vague or otherwise contradicting laws and policies.

Depiction of medieval Malynogorod

Despite the negative effects of centralization, culturally, the increased sense of unity, albeit temporary, resulted in the so-called Kalinovan Renaissance, lasting from the early 1600s to early 1700s. Works of art ranging from elaborate tapestries to the fusion of foreign architecture into traditional Kalinovan architecture served to demonstrate the period of increased artistic expression, including the influence of foreign culture in Kalinova. Additionally, the improving military allowed the League to expand eastward, establishing new city republics and expanding existing ones. Overpopulation in the League's larger cities were relieved as settlers ventured into the sparsely-populated hinterlands.

By the mid 17th century, however, the increasingly complex and convoluted reforms of the Vecze, exacerbated by the aforementioned lack of cooperation, lead to distrust against the Vecze's effectiveness. For the first time since its inception, the city republics lost faith in the League, and this stirred discontent among the population. The major blow to this was when Breisland increased missionary activity in the northwest parts of Kalinova, and the Boyar of Molinsk, converted to Zamarran Christianity in 1689, proving the Vecze's inability to defend the country against foreign encroachment. In response, the Republic of Lviv and Free City of Cherniv, both significant members of the League, terminated their participation, declaring full sovereignty in May of that year. The loss of two of the League's most important members lead to the immediate collapse of the League, isolating the Vecze and fracturing the Kalinovan state.

The Crumble

Radymir Yurewsky, the first Vozhd of the Kalinovan State

The collapse of the Kalinovan League led to the drastic disruption of life in the now independent and unprotected merchant republics and cities in Kalinova. The lack of organization regarding trade policies and political cooperation resulted in constant military skirmishes and even the rise of anarchy in some areas. The period was known as "The Crumble" (Rozwalennya in Kalinovan), so-called as a description of the societal collapse.

For over fifty years, Kalinova was in a state of disorganization. Though some states fared better than others, most did not. The Vecze, however, continued to exist in a rump form. It only served the Cosmopolis of Malynogorod and its surroundings, having, by 1691, realized that it no longer held any influence beyond the boundaries of the city's control. Chaos during meetings and the lack of morale meant that the Vecze congregated rarely, usually only once or twice a year, and usually only to resolve petty municipal issues.

In 1741, Radymir Yurewsky, the son of a merchant from Mykolayiv, joined the Vecze as a rogue representative of city. He had developed a band of soldiers to defend the trade route between the two cities. Encroachments from lone bandit brigades convinced him of the need to stabilize the region through any means necessary. As a great orator, he gained the support of the Vecze to lead the reunification of the Kalinovan League. In 1748, he became the first official Vozhd of the Kalinovan Republic, having declared the existence of a united Kalinova after becoming the Premier of the Vecze. Though by then only the cities of Mykolayiv and Malynogorod had become united under his leadership, he was quickly able to regain the support of the Republic of Lviv. Lviv had continued to be a wealthy city through the Crumble, but its interests were constantly being threatened or thwarted due to the lack of cooperation from its neighbors, and was by then seeking an alliance with the Vecze to secure its interests. Yurewsky convinced the Republic's leaders to be integrated into the new state with the promised rights it held before the collapse of the Kalinovan League.

After the consolidation of the Republic of Lviv in 1751, Yurewsky led the diplomatic integration of the entirety of the Kalii River Basin, including the Free City of Cherniv by 1758. Moving westwards, he experienced resistance, especially from the Boyar of Molinsk, despite the latter's recent falling out of favor from Breislandic nobility. Yurewsky gained the approval of the Vecze and claimants to the Boyar title to take the city by force, which he did in 1761. The next 20 years were dedicated to the pacification of the Kalinovan countryside from bandit brigades, rogue agents, and dissenting towns and cities. In 1781, at the age of 74, he declared the establishment of the Kalinovan State, initiating reforms of the Vecze and the government functions to serve a unified nation state. He resigned four years later due to old age, wishing to see the state run effectively without his control.

Modern Era

While the period of the Crumble was a significant point of weakness for Kalinova, it saw relatively little foreign interference. At this time Breisland, a country increasingly consolidating hegemonic power over Illypnia, had little focus on the Kalinovan region apart from trading. Yurewsky's unification and nation building led to a long period of Kalinovan stability, favorable laws concerning entrepreneurship and a hands-off economic policy, which led to increased investment by Breisland, who needed Kalinovan natural resources to fuel its industrial revolution. Kalinova saw its own expansion of steam powered factories during this time, but it wasn't until the 1880s that Kalinova saw the beginning of full industrialization of its economy. This period was interrupted by the Revolutionary Wars. Though Kalinova did not take an active role in the outcome, the country was invaded by Breisland in 18xx. The Breislandic forces saw little resistance from Kalinova and was able to ensure Kalinovan neutrality during Breisland's wars.

After the end of the Revolutionary Wars, Kalinova's economy began to recover and stabilize. This led to the beginning of rapid industrialization that, between 1870 and 1900, led to Kalinova's economical output increasing threefold. This was facilitated by new technological advancements that led to an increase in agricultural yields and improved resource extraction. The completion of the Trans-Subuyan Railway in 1862 connected east Kalinova with west Kalinova. What was once a scarce region dotted with occasional trade and military posts became a major economic region as migration to the east increased drastically and investments increased.

Politically, Kalinova saw little change in the government's conservative policies, as Yurewsky's policies had been considered a safe standard that, despite their longevity, helped develop Kalinova extensively. This changed in the mid-1800s with industrialization, when increased economic prosperity also led to social instability as a result of exponential population growth and increased wealth inequality. This led to social upheaval, particularly as it fostered the growth of socialist movements, especially the Soednena Volya, the “United Will”, which was initially a cooperative union of socialist and more radical communist elements. The group later split into smaller groups focused on particular doctrines of socialism and communism. Conversely, the period also saw the growth of ultranationalists that supported economic conservatism and militarism, primarily to politically integrate Subuyan countries into the Kalinovan State.

The most significant of Kalinova's socialist movements became the Troikists, who became incredibly popular among Kalinovan voters. Troikists favored Marxist economic policies while also integrating some ideas of the ultranationalists, mainly those focusing on Kalinovan isolationism and closer cooperation with the Subuyan nations. The Troikists were successful at bringing in both socialists and ultranationalists into their support base. By the early 1900s, several Premiers were Troikists, including Yaroslav Minov and Volodymyr Rykov. During their premierships, Kalinova's economy began shifting towards a communal model, albeit with elements of capitalism. Many entities in the Kalinovan State reorganized into explicit syndicalist autonomies, giving economic control to worker's and municipal councils. These autonomies saw much success in improving worker's conditions and even increased economic output in many areas.

These developments increased Troikist popularity even further, and Boris Irkyshnikov, a prominent Troikist after the deaths of Minov, Rykov, and Mykita Bukharin, was elected Vozhd in 1935. His rule saw dominance of the Troikist Trudnik's Party over Kalinovan politics. Most urban entities became syndicalist autonomies, the most significant of which being the Cosmopolis of Malynogorod. Irkyshnikov also oversaw a drastic militarization of Kalinova, increasing conscription and encouraging military technological and doctrinal development. The United Autobahn System was created to develop a nationwide autobahn network to facilitate military logistics while also serving to improve the transportation of goods in the country. When the Great Adonian War started, Irkyshnikov had transformed Kalinova into a significant military power, despite his preference of remaining neutral and encouraging diplomacy among the Adonian great powers.

Great Adonian War


Post War

After the end of the Great Adonian War, Irkyshnikov continued his policies until his death. When the Great Adonian Depression began in 1949, Kalinova's economy saw a period of stagnation and lower activity, though arguably not at the same level as other nations. To the contrary of trends in other nations, the economic liberal Constitutional Democratic party, or the Kadets, rose in popularity to the detriment of the Trudnik's Party's influence. Between 1960 and 2000, Kalinova experienced a two-party rivalry, and both the Trudniks and Kadets saw alternating administrations. This power dynamic was influential enough to make the next three Vozhds after Irkyshnikov declare political neutrality: Volodymir Garkyn, Rodon Vernin, and Petr Golobyn, despite the latter two being supporters of the Kadets before disavowing themselves from the party upon their coronations.

During the premiership of Kadet Vadim Perlonik, many syndicalist autonomies became defunct, privatizing their economies. Most did so voluntarily, while others had been privatized by executive order. This was part of an overall privatization of Kalinova's economy as a consequence of the Great Adonian Depression. Many autonomies at this time became stagnant or unable to properly adapt to the sluggish economic conditions, risking hyperinflation and regional economic collapse. The privatization was successful, combating high unemployment by allowing for the rise of small business in many industries that had before-then been dominated by public entities. Naturally, this gave the Kadets a boost in many regions. The Trudnik's ended up adapting to the pro-capitalist stance by choosing a policy of maintaining worker's rights and keeping the welfare state intact. For much of the next four decades, this defined the dynamic between the two parties.

By the turn of the millenia, the Kadets became viewed as the party of economic and political freedom, which bid well with the overall enthusiasm and excitement over the start of the 2000s. Popular foreign and domestic policy decisions by the Kadets and the disastrous handling of the <...> situation by the Trudnik's propelled the Kadet party to achieving a firm lead. This led to Kadet dominance in Kalinovan politics to this day. While Vozhd Viacheslav Zalenyn was officially politically neutral but on occasion openly pro-Kadet, Kazymyr Federyczyn became the first Vozhd since Irkyshnikov with party allegiance, in this case to the Kadets. Both Vozhdoships saw the increased competitiveness of Kalinova's economy on the global stage, where both exports of manufactured goods and the global influence of Kalinovan corporations outside of Subuya have both increased.

Geography

View of the Tatra Range in northern Kalinova.

Kalinova borders Breisland to the west, West Lapland, East Lapland, the Gulf of Kalinova, Uppland, Livland, Latgalia to the south, Galastan to the east, and Sayastan, Comania, Camarstan, and Lusatia to the north. At 11 bordering countries, Kalinova shares a border with more countries than any country on Adonia. Kalinova is also one of the largest nations on Adonia, with a land area of over 4 million square kilometers.

While Kalinova is mostly flat, with the South Illypnian Plain stretching across most of the country, central Kalinova is much more hilly, with mountains in the north, including the Tatra Range. Kalinova's highest point is at 5,642 meters, Mount Korczyk, while it's lower point is in Lake Zeleny, whose seabed is nearly 200 meters below average sea level.

Fauna

Flora

Climate

Dominated by a temperate climate, most of Kalinova is in the ... . Most of Kalinova is covered by dense forest, with pinewood forests dominating in the south and eastern regions.

Government and politics

Governance

Administrative divisions

Kalinova has a complex array of internal divisions, the largest of which being the member states, whose borders have hardly changed since the establishment of the Kalinovan State in the 1700s. Generally, these divisions are based on the various city states, republics, and duchies that were part of the Kalii League. The largest of which is the Grand Duchy of Lwiw while the smallest is the Town of Nowiy Rozdil. Under the Constitution of Kalinova, all member states are subservient to the central government of Kalinova, but are permitted certain rights regarding taxation and legislation. Much of eastern Kalinova is organized under the greater Eastern Territorial Administration which is under the direct supervision of the central Kalinovan government, though much of the right to administer are delegated to regional governments within the territory.

Foreign Relations

Military

Economy

Kalinova's mixed economy is highly developed and industrialized, with large amounts of natural resources, particularly coal and natural gas, and is among the biggest exporters of manufactured good on Adonia. Since the 1980s, Kalinova's economy has been improving at a rate of, on average, 3.1%. This is mostly as a result of friendly relations with Breisland, the main gateway to the global market for Kalinovan goods, and of the Central Skade Canal which was completed in 1959, allowing Kalinovan merchant ships easier access to the global market, which was hampered due to ice packs in the winter.

Currently, Kalinova is ranked as the seventh largest economy on Adonia in terms of gross domestic product (purchasing power parity), and its gross domestic product per capita is ranked -. This makes Kalinova's economy among the most influential in the world, making it a major gateway between the Illypnian and Fosian markets, in part thanks to Kalinova's geographical position and the Kalinovan-Zong-Daras built Transfosian Railway which ultimately connects Malynogorod and Huwei, completed in 1878. The railway has since been upgraded to include 3 additional parallel lines to accommodate high volume trade and is in the works of possibly becoming a Maglev railway and extended to Koblenz.

A Vrutik Bereza. Kalinova's large automotive industry is one of the largest in the world, as it is the 4th largest exporter of automobiles.

The service sector of Kalinova accounts for about 76.3% of all employed individuals, while the manufacturing and agricultural sectors account for 22.2% and 1.5%, respectively. Kalinova's service sector is among the largest in the world, and has a highly influential financial sector that helps extend Kalinovan influence worldwide, especially in developing nations where Kalinovan investments are greatest. Many such companies, such as Gorovkin Financial and KUP Inc employ thousands of white-collar workers worldwide.

The automotive industry in Kalinova accounts for the 4th largest production of automobiles by volume among the countries of the world, with Vrutik and ZAV Group dominating the industry in Kalinova. Kalinovan automobiles are known to be reliable and luxurious, and have been manufactured for use by numerous governments around the world. The two mentioned groups are also undergoing expansion by opening factories in many countries in an attempt to expand their markets.

Kalinova's natural resources account for 23.4% of all Kalinova's exports. Namely, the country's oil and natural gas reserves allow it to be a net exporter, with Breisland being the largest importer of Kalinova's fossil fuels. Agricultural and lumber production are also major contributors to Kalinova's exports, with the country's vast land and forests providing the means to make this possible. Kalinova is currently the largest exporter of wood products and is the second largest wheat exporter. Additionally, Kalinova's production of aluminum, titanium, copper, zinc, and other metals is also among the top in the world and provides Kalinova the means to manufacture finished goods without much importation of raw materials.

The unemployment rate in Kalinova is currently 5.6% and falling while 15.4% live below the national poverty line of $6,500 for an individual or $13,400 for a family of four. Kalinovan wealth as a whole is only moderately concentrated within the top 10% of income earners, which claims 43.1% of all income earned. The distribution of wealth has become increasingly less equal since Kalinova's wean off socialist based policies, a process that began in the 1970s. In that same time, however, Kalinova has seen one of its greatest economic growth in the nation's history.

Transports

Demographics

Population

According to the 2016 census, Kalinova has a population of over 235 million people, making it the ... most populated country on Adonia. Of the three constituent countries of the United Kingdom, Kalinova has, by far, the largest population, with well over 190 million. The next largest is the Kingdom of Karay, with over 25 million people, and then the Kingdom of Nogay, with just under 10 million. Between 2000 and 2010, the population increased by 3.2%, mostly as a result of immigration from ... . 51% of Kalinovans are born female, wile 49% are born male. However, according to the same census, 4.5% of Kalinovans reported to be either homosexual, bisexual, or transgender. Most people of the LGBT community live in or near the vicinity of Malynogorod or other major cities.

Kalinova has a highly urbanized population, with most settling in cities during the Industrial Revolution. While a decent portion of the population still lives in rural areas, as much as 25%, the majority of the demographics belong to large urban centers. Urbanization continues to increase as the service sector of Kalinova expands, as more white-collar and blue-collar jobs become available in major urban centers.

Ethnicity and Language

Kalinova's ethnic makeup is generally homogeneous, with most ethnic minorities expelled during the initial expansion of the nation. However, toward the north, the majority of the population is made up of <Turkic> people, especially ... . Over 90% of Kalinova's population is ethnically Kalinovan, although some changes exist between certain regions. Kalinovan exists as a dialect continuum, where the most common dialect, known as Standard Kalinovan, is generally spoken in the southwestern areas of the country, including the capital, Malynogorod. In the northwest, the Molinsk Dialect is more popular. The eastern half of the country speaks the Subuyan Dialect. Other minority ethnic groups of significance include Breislandics, <Estonians>, <Latvian>, and <finns>.

While the people of the Kingdoms of Karay and Noghey do not speak Kalinovan as a first language (though around 85% speak it as a second or third language), Kalinovan remains the official language of Kalinova and is used in administrative work and all domestic affairs. In Karay and Noghey, their respective languages are used domestically, guaranteed by their separate constitutions, though working knowledge of Kalinovan is still mandatory for government workers.

Religion

While Kalinova has no official religion, Rodnovirie remains the most practiced among Kalinovans, with insignificant pockets of Zamarran Catholicism in major urban centers, especially in Molinsk. Rodnovirie is a direct descendant of the prehistoric religion of the Slavs that over time developed into a sophisticated, standardized belief system. In contrast with other major religions, Rodnovirie supports and upholds critical thought and self-improvement over all else. This resulted in the contemporary view that the pantheon of Rodnovirien gods are merely symbolic, representative of good and bad virtues among human beings. Nevertheless, the comprehensive nature of the religion remains a way of life for many Kalinovans to this day.

Due to the influence of Breislandic missionaries in Kalinova, Rodnovirie, and in effect Kalinovan society, saw major influences by Christianity. Most notably, the use of standardized religious texts and the significance of death and its aftermath. As a result, Christianity was limited in its spread in Kalinova, something other polytheistic religions were not able to do, especially in Mesogea. This resilience proves to be a major source of pride among Kalinovans and accounts for the continued popularity of the religion.

While most Kalinovans follow Rodnovirie, a sizeable percentage of Kalinovans are atheists and/or agnostic. Kalinovan society has largely proven to be tolerant and accepting of irreligion, which is likely a result of the country's history with religious turmoil. As a result, the people of Kalinova are largely adherent to the idea of the separation of church and state, even though Rodnovirie is unofficially regarded as the state religion of Kalinova. The Kalinovan Constitution supports the right to freedom of religion, the only reference to religion in the entire document.

Health

According to the Constitution of Kalinova, universal healthcare is a right of the Kalinovan citizen. As a result of the end of the Crumble, the Veche issued the Act of the Physicians, which mandated that every town of greater than 50 citizens must have at least one physician. Later, the Act was amended to include all settlements. Today, the United Health Service provides basic healthcare for all Kalinovan citizens and even has the means to assign doctors to settlements around the country. Officially, Kalinova has more physicians, hospitals, and health care workers than almost any other country in the world on a per capita basis. More advanced care remains officially privatized, though subsidized by the UHS, meaning that even the most advanced care can be accessible to most Kalinovan citizens.

The United Health Service has the world's largest fleets of ambulances.

Kalinova's healthcare system is ranked among the top five in the world, and upwards of 10% of the nation's gross domestic product is dedicated to the United Health Service. A result of this is that the average life expectancy is around 83.4, among the highest in the world. A nation-wide campaign during the latter half of the twentieth century against the use of drugs and alcohol drastically reduced the number of drug-related deaths. In an effort to combat the use of illicit drugs, addicts are sent to rehabilitation centers, and most patients manage to free themselves from their harmful addictions. Notably, among most large countries on Adonia, in the history of Kalinova, the use of marijuana or the consumption of alcohol or tobacco have never been outlawed or restricted in any significant way.

Education

King's College, one of the constituent colleges of the University of Rozdil.

The educational system in Kalinova is highly regarded. The University of Rozdil is among the top universities in the world. Along with having a sizable network of public universities and trade schools, most tertiary education students study at private universities. As of the Education Act of 1968, Kalinovan public schools are completely subsidized, being effectively free for Kalinovan citizens. Additionally, funds are allocated for subsidizing certain private universities, as well.

Mandatory public education had its beginnings in the 1820s, and today a Kalinovan child must attend school for 13 years by law, except in the most extreme cases. Most children begin education at age 5 and finish at age 18. Certain localities allow children to finish public education at age 16 to attend preparatory schools or to attend trade schools. 16.4% of Kalinovan primary and secondary students attend private schools, with the percentage being higher for primary school students. Only 1.8% are homeschooled.

The tradition of public education dates back to the early years of Kalinova, in which the principles of education, particularly reading and writing, were highly valued in the Rodnovirie religion. This accounted for Kalinova historically ranking high in terms of literacy rates. This tradition also has marked Kalinova at 3rd place in terms of per student spending worldwide, leaving the country at 4th place on the Education Index.

Culture

Architecture

Cuisine

Music

Literature and philosophy

Cinema and media

Subcultures

Sports

Many sport games, in particularly football, are an integral part of modern Kalinovan culture. Football was introduced to Kalinova in <> from <> and Kalinova entered its first national football team into the <> in <>. The Kalinovan Football League is the national football conference, with most major cities in Kalinova hosting their own football clubs. The finals of every season are among the most watched televised events in Kalinova.

Besides football, Kalinova also hosts a competitive national ice hockey team. The Kalinovan Hockey League is also a widely watched sports conference in Kalinova. Other major sports include gymnastics, wrestling, tennis, and basketball, in no particular order.

As a whole, Kalinovan athletes are world class, and can be found in many football clubs and hockey teams worldwide. Kalinova also fares well during the Olympics, both summer and winter, with the last Olympics in Kalinova being hosted in <> in <>. Kalinova is set to host the upcoming <> in <>.