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Kalandism is a socialist revolutionary theory based on the ideas, programs and government style associated with former Varkan President and revolutionary leader Ana Kalanda. Kalandism holds that socialist revolution should be carried out by a relatively small group of highly organised and secretive conspirators. Having seized power, the revolutionaries then use the power of the state to introduce socialism. It is considered a particular sort of "putschism" — that is, the view that political revolution should take the form of a putsch or coup d'état.

Kalandism is distinguished from other socialist currents (especially Marxist ones) in various ways: on the one hand, contrary to Marx, Kalanda did not believe in the predominant role of the working class, nor did she believe in the lasting effects of popular movements — instead she believed that revolution should be carried out by a small group of professional, dedicated revolutionaries, who would establish a temporary dictatorship by force. This dictatorship would permit the implementation of the basis of a new order, after which power would then be handed to the people.


Political system

After the Communists took power in Varkana, the country was divided into several administrative regions called communes. Communes are characterized as being a local and transparent organization composed of delegates bound by mandates. Every office of the state is occupied by a delegate, including the Presidency, bound by mandates. These delegates are recallable at any time from their positions. They are directly elected by the population as candidates of a single Communist Party. As a result, Kalandism is inherently vanguardist and supports the creation of a one-party state. Leftist political parties in Varkana at the time of the January Revolution, including the Socialist Party and the Radical Party, merged into the Communist Party and became internal national factions. Every commune has its own sub-Communist Party, responsible for organizing the communal level politics and manage the relationships between different village's councils. The councils are formed as a grassroots effort to practice direct democracy by the proletariat, and plan the decentralized economy.

In Varkana, the councils were initially open to everyone, including the bourgeoisie. While most bourgeois boycotted the council elections, a few in various villages across the country participated and had delegates elected. Many, however, were arrested (and therefore recalled from office) for anti-revolutionary actions, and all the bourgeois members of the councils eventually left. The fury of the bourgeoisie against the independent and omnipotent organizations of the proletariat, the fight the bourgeoisie waged against the councils and the overt participation of the bourgeoisie in anti-revolutionary actions paved the way for their formal exclusion from the councils. With village and factory councils as a base, there arose the sub-communist parties at the communal executive level, up to the national Communist Party.

Economic system

The state serves as a safeguard for the ownership and as the coordinator of activities through decentralized economic plans developed by each commune according to their needs and resources. U/C

International relations

Kalandism, much like other socialist movements, aims to create an international socialist society. It opposes colonialism and imperialism and advocates decolonization and anti-colonial forces. Under the Communist Party, Varkana founded the Communist Alliance in the 20th century, aiming to united all communist and socialist countries against the threat of capitalist forces towards them.

In foreign policy, Kalandists are identified with both Proletarian internationalism and Varkan exceptionalism, and Kalanda sought to impose socialism on the global order in what she describes as an "international revolution," where workers around Adonia would unite and continue the revolution to neighboring states as a domino effect and eventually create an international socialist society. Kalandists view the international system as an integrated capitalist system in pursuit of capital accumulation.


The Kalandist worldview promotes religious tolerance as a fundamental tenet in a fully secular society, different from traditional Marxism's atheism. Varkan secularism aims to banish religious (Armazist) interference in government affairs, and vice versa. Kalandism strove to control religion and transform it into a private affair rather than an institution interfering with politics, scientific and national progress. Varkan secularism does not imply nor advocate agnosticism or nihilism; it means freedom of thought and independence of the institutions of the state from the dominance of religious thought and religious institutions. The Kalandist principle of secularism is not against moderate and apolitical religion, but against religious forces opposed to and fighting socialism and democracy.

According to the Kalandist perception, the Varkan state is to stand at an equal distance from every religion, neither promoting nor condemning any set of religious beliefs. From a political perspective, Kalandism is anti-clerical in that it seeks to prevent religious influence on the democratic process, which was a problem even in the pseudo-secular politics of the First Republic of Varkana, when even non-religiously affiliated political parties feuded over matters such as the Armazist piety of their candidates in Varkan political sphere.



Kalanda's nationalist impulses also played a crucially important role in the later formation of Kalandism. Due to Varkana's context after the January Revolution, as the first socialist state, Varkana suddenly found itself isolated and without allies. Thus, national unity was considered to be of utmost importance, seeing Varkana as a single organic entity that binds people together by their collectivism, and is a natural unifying force of people. Kalanda's policies and legacy led her followers onto the path of creating a personality cult around her image and her philosophy. According to many critics, later Varkan communist leaders such as Levan Gotua accentuated Kalanda's importance and made her an "immortal figure," elevating her to the status of goddess.