Difference between revisions of "Pirveli Divizionis"

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The '''Pirveli Divizionis''' is a [[Varkana|Varkana]] professional league for men's [[wikipedia:association football|association football]] clubs, acting as the country's primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of [[wikipedia:promotion and relegation|promotion and relegation]] with the [[Meore Divizionis]]. Seasons run from February to November, with teams playing 38 matches each (playing each team in the league twice, home and away) totaling 760 matches in the season.
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The '''Pirveli Divizionis''' is a [[Varkana]] professional league for men's [[wikipedia:association football|association football]] clubs, acting as the country's primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of [[wikipedia:promotion and relegation|promotion and relegation]] with the [[Meore Divizionis]]. Seasons run from February to November, with teams playing 38 matches each (playing each team in the league twice, home and away) totaling 760 matches in the season.
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
 +
 
==Competition format==
 
==Competition format==
 
===Competition===
 
===Competition===
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==Finances==
 
==Finances==
At the end of each season, clubs in the Pirveli Divizionis must apply to the [[Varkana Football Federation]] (VFF) for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the VFF, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval. The VFF have a system of fines and points deductions for clubs who flout rules and those who go into the red can only buy a player after selling one for at least the same amount.  
+
At the end of each season, clubs in the Pirveli Divizionis must apply to the [[Varkana Football Federation]] (VFF) for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the VFF, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval. The VFF have a system of fines and points deductions for clubs who flout rules and those who go into the red can only buy a player after selling one for at least the same amount.
  
Pirveli Divizionis clubs are required to be majority-owned by Varkan club members (known as the 50+1 rule, to discourage control by a single entity) and operate under tight restrictions on the use of debt for acquisitions (a team only receives an operating license if it has solid financials), as a result 16 of the 20 clubs were in the black after the 2012–13 season. By contrast the lax approach of the other major Illypnian leagues has resulted in several high profile teams coming under ownership of tycoons and billionaires, and a larger number of clubs have high levels of debt.  The [[Varkana Football Association]] and the Pirveli Divizionis mandate that all clubs run a youth academy, with the aim of bolstering the stream of communal talent for the club and national team. This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players.
+
Pirveli Divizionis clubs are required to be majority-owned by Varkan club members (known as the 50+1 rule, to discourage control by a single entity) and operate under tight restrictions on the use of debt for acquisitions (a team only receives an operating license if it has solid financials), as a result 16 of the 20 clubs were in the black after the 2012–13 season. By contrast the lax approach of the other major Illypnian leagues has resulted in several high-profile teams coming under ownership of tycoons and billionaires, and a larger number of clubs have high levels of debt.  The [[Varkana Football Association]] and the Pirveli Divizionis mandate that all clubs run a youth academy, with the aim of bolstering the stream of communal talent for the club and national team. This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players.
  
 
Based on its per-game average, the Pirveli Divizionis is the second best-attended association football league in Adonia; out of all sports, its average of 41,562 fans per game during the 2014–15 season was the fourth highest of any professional sports league worldwide. Out of Illypnia's major football leagues, the Pirveli Divizionis has the lowest ticket prices and the second highest average attendance. Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans. Teams limit the number of season tickets to ensure everyone has a chance to see the games live, and the away club has the right to 10% of the available capacity.
 
Based on its per-game average, the Pirveli Divizionis is the second best-attended association football league in Adonia; out of all sports, its average of 41,562 fans per game during the 2014–15 season was the fourth highest of any professional sports league worldwide. Out of Illypnia's major football leagues, the Pirveli Divizionis has the lowest ticket prices and the second highest average attendance. Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans. Teams limit the number of season tickets to ensure everyone has a chance to see the games live, and the away club has the right to 10% of the available capacity.
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==Media coverage==
 
==Media coverage==
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
 +
 
==Stadiums==
 
==Stadiums==
 
The stadiums for the 2016 season show a large disparity in capacity: [[Televar Stadionze]], the home of [[SK Kaspi]] has a capacity of 74,244 with [[TBA Stadionze]], the home of [[SK Manralo]], having a capacity of 15,000. The combined total capacity of the Pirveli Divizionis in the 2016 season is 846,195 with an average capacity of 42,310.
 
The stadiums for the 2016 season show a large disparity in capacity: [[Televar Stadionze]], the home of [[SK Kaspi]] has a capacity of 74,244 with [[TBA Stadionze]], the home of [[SK Manralo]], having a capacity of 15,000. The combined total capacity of the Pirveli Divizionis in the 2016 season is 846,195 with an average capacity of 42,310.
 
  
 
==Managers==
 
==Managers==
Line 213: Line 216:
 
==Players==
 
==Players==
 
===Foreign players and transfer regulations===
 
===Foreign players and transfer regulations===
By regulation, a maximum of 25% of a club's first squad players may be non-Varkan citizens or foreign players. This rule has been bypassed by many clubs over the years by transferred foreign players who obtained their citizenship while playing for a club, then becoming Varkan players. Thus, 75% of a club's first squad must hold Varkan citizenship, and 25% must be 'home-grown', by having resided in the commune where the club is located for more than three years before their 21st birthday. This last rule is favoring clubs' academies for promoting young Varkan talents, as well as a form of communal pride and link with the football club.  
+
By regulation, a maximum of 25% of a club's first squad players may be non-Varkan citizens or foreign players. This rule has been bypassed by many clubs over the years by transferred foreign players who obtained their citizenship while playing for a club, then becoming Varkan players. Thus, 75% of a club's first squad must hold Varkan citizenship, and 25% must be 'home-grown', by having resided in the commune where the club is located for more than three years before their 21st birthday. This last rule is favoring clubs' academies for promoting young Varkan talents, as well as a form of communal pride and link with the football club.
  
 
Players may only be transferred during transfer windows that are set by the [[Varkan Football Federation]]. The two transfer windows run from from the last day of the season to 31 January and from 31 July to 31 August. Player registrations cannot be exchanged outside these windows except under specific licence from the VFF, usually on an emergency basis.
 
Players may only be transferred during transfer windows that are set by the [[Varkan Football Federation]]. The two transfer windows run from from the last day of the season to 31 January and from 31 July to 31 August. Player registrations cannot be exchanged outside these windows except under specific licence from the VFF, usually on an emergency basis.

Revision as of 08:23, 24 October 2016

Pirveli Divizionis
Pirveli Divizionis.png
CountryVarkana
ConfederationUIFA
Founded20 November 1916
Number of teams20
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toMeore Divizionis
Domestic cup(s)League Cup
League cup(s)Divizionis Cup
International cup(s)UIFA Champions League
UIFA Illypnia League
Current championsKlow (13th title)
(2015)
Most championshipsKaspi
(24 titles)
TV partnersSTV 2
WebsitePirveliDivizionis.va
2016 Pirveli Divizionis

The Pirveli Divizionis is a Varkana professional league for men's association football clubs, acting as the country's primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Meore Divizionis. Seasons run from February to November, with teams playing 38 matches each (playing each team in the league twice, home and away) totaling 760 matches in the season.

History

Competition format

Competition

There are 20 clubs in the Pirveli Divizionis. During the course of a season (from August to May) each club plays the others twice (a double round-robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then goal difference, and then goals scored. If still equal, teams are deemed to occupy the same position. If there is a tie for the championship, for relegation, or for qualification to other competitions, a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank. The three lowest placed teams are relegated into the Meore Divizionis, and the top two teams from the Meore, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third to sixth placed Meore clubs, are promoted in their place.

The Pirveli Divizionis is considered to be one of Adonia's most competitive leagues with its last seven seasons titles being awarded to seven different teams.

Qualification for Illypnian competitions

Currently, as determined by the UIFA coefficient, the top three teams in Pirveli Divizionis qualify for the UIFA Champions League, with the top two proceeding directly to the group phase. The third-placed team enters in the third qualifying round. The fourth-placed team qualifies for the UIFA Illypnia League. The other two Illypnia League places are determined through the country's two domestic cup competitions, the PD Cup and Divizionis Cup. If both of the cup winners qualify for Illypnia through their league position, the fifth and sixth-placed teams in Pirveli Divizionis will qualify for the Illypnia League. The league can also be awarded an Illypnian place based on their UIFA Fair Play ranking. The league operates a Fair Play table to determine the winning club if Varkana turns out to be the winning nation based on their Fair Play ranking.

Finances

At the end of each season, clubs in the Pirveli Divizionis must apply to the Varkana Football Federation (VFF) for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the VFF, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval. The VFF have a system of fines and points deductions for clubs who flout rules and those who go into the red can only buy a player after selling one for at least the same amount.

Pirveli Divizionis clubs are required to be majority-owned by Varkan club members (known as the 50+1 rule, to discourage control by a single entity) and operate under tight restrictions on the use of debt for acquisitions (a team only receives an operating license if it has solid financials), as a result 16 of the 20 clubs were in the black after the 2012–13 season. By contrast the lax approach of the other major Illypnian leagues has resulted in several high-profile teams coming under ownership of tycoons and billionaires, and a larger number of clubs have high levels of debt. The Varkana Football Association and the Pirveli Divizionis mandate that all clubs run a youth academy, with the aim of bolstering the stream of communal talent for the club and national team. This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players.

Based on its per-game average, the Pirveli Divizionis is the second best-attended association football league in Adonia; out of all sports, its average of 41,562 fans per game during the 2014–15 season was the fourth highest of any professional sports league worldwide. Out of Illypnia's major football leagues, the Pirveli Divizionis has the lowest ticket prices and the second highest average attendance. Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans. Teams limit the number of season tickets to ensure everyone has a chance to see the games live, and the away club has the right to 10% of the available capacity.

Clubs

Club
Position
in 2015
First season in
top division
Number of seasons
in Pirveli Divizionis
First season of
current spell in
top division
Pirveli Divizionis
titles
Last Pirveli Divizionis title
Abasha 010MD: 1st 1999 17 2016 0
Anaklia 00412th 1968 34 2012 0
Borjomi 010MD: 4th 1934 25 2016 0
Chiatura 00413th 1988 16 2014 0
Dmanisia b 0105th 1917 99 1917 5 2013
Jandari 0047th 1945 57 2000 4 2010
Kaspia b 0104th 1917 99 1917 24 2012
Khonia b 0042nd 1917 99 1917 6 1960
Klowa b 0041st 1917 99 1917 13 2015
Manralob 010MD: 2nd 2016 1 2016 0
Matanini 01014th 1963 49 2013 1 2000
Mirakhi 0046th 1953 58 2013 4 1999
Polenitsa 01015th 1945 34 2012 1 2009
Ravda 00416th 1995 11 2013 0
Rustavi 0109th 1932 60 1994 0
Senakia b 0103rd 1917 99 1917 11 2011
Terjola 0048th 1945 64 1992 4 1986
Zaglianua b 00410th 1917 99 1917 6 2014
Zestafoni 01017th 1958 29 2003 0
Zetsueni 01011th 1998 13 2006 0

a: Founding member of Pirveli Divizionis
b: Never been relegated from Pirveli Divizionis

Team Location Stadium Capacity
Abasha Abasha TBA Stadionze 30,660
Anaklia Anaklia TBA Stadionze 30,210
Guria Borjomi Borjomi Komunaluri Stadionze 33,000
Chiatura Chiatura Dzveli Tsiskvilis 55,000
Dmanisi Dmanisi Irma Nioradze Stadionze 55,000
Shukura Jandari Jandari Bidzina Kvernadze Stadionze 52,500
Kaspi Kaspi Televar Stadionze 74,244
Dinamo Klow Klow Kapitalis Stadionze 67,394
Khoni Mamali S.K. Oni Trophabi Stadionze 61,000
Manralo Manralo TBA Stadionze 15,000
Matanini Matanini TBA Stadionze 30,150
Mirakhi Mirakhi Rapava Arenaze 50,000
Merani Polenitsa Polenitsa Kobuleti Arenaze 41,965
Torpedo Ravda Ravda TBA Stadionze 17,000
Spartaki Rustavi Rustavi Nogaideli Stadionze 32,000
Saburtalo Senaki Senaki Sinatlis Stadionze 59,286
Sapovnela Terjola Terjola Karieri Stadionze 30,286
Dila Zaglianu Zaglianu Makvala Metreveli Stadionze 51,500
Lokomotivi Zestafoni Zestafoni TBA Stadionze 30,000
Chikhura Zetsueni Zetsueni TBA Stadionze 30,000

Media coverage

Stadiums

The stadiums for the 2016 season show a large disparity in capacity: Televar Stadionze, the home of SK Kaspi has a capacity of 74,244 with TBA Stadionze, the home of SK Manralo, having a capacity of 15,000. The combined total capacity of the Pirveli Divizionis in the 2016 season is 846,195 with an average capacity of 42,310.

Managers

Managers in the Pirveli Divizionis are involved in the day-to-day running of the team, including the training, team selection, and player acquisition. Their influence varies from club-to-club and is related to the ownership of the club and the relationship of the manager with fans. Managers are required to have a UIFA Pro Licence which is the final coaching qualification available, and follows the completion of the UIFA 'B' and 'A' Licences. The UIFA Pro Licence is required by every person who wishes to manage a club in the Pirveli Divizionis on a permanent basis (i.e. more than 12 weeks – the amount of time an unqualified caretaker manager is allowed to take control). Caretaker appointments are managers that fill the gap between a managerial departure and a new appointment. Several caretaker managers have gone on to secure a permanent managerial post after performing well as a caretaker.

Players

Foreign players and transfer regulations

By regulation, a maximum of 25% of a club's first squad players may be non-Varkan citizens or foreign players. This rule has been bypassed by many clubs over the years by transferred foreign players who obtained their citizenship while playing for a club, then becoming Varkan players. Thus, 75% of a club's first squad must hold Varkan citizenship, and 25% must be 'home-grown', by having resided in the commune where the club is located for more than three years before their 21st birthday. This last rule is favoring clubs' academies for promoting young Varkan talents, as well as a form of communal pride and link with the football club.

Players may only be transferred during transfer windows that are set by the Varkan Football Federation. The two transfer windows run from from the last day of the season to 31 January and from 31 July to 31 August. Player registrations cannot be exchanged outside these windows except under specific licence from the VFF, usually on an emergency basis.

Player wages and transfer fees

Following Varkan law, there is effectively a maximum wage nationwide, acting in the Pirveli Divizionis as an individual salary cap. Transfer fees do not have any cap whatsoever, on the other hand, since transfers may occur between the league and foreign leagues. As a result, transfer fees involving the league's clubs tend to be slightly higher than in other Illypnian leagues when done between Varkan clubs. However, this allows clubs to retain more funds for purchases in other leagues as well. The maximum wage tends to dissuade highly paid top class players to play in Varkana, making the Pirveli Divizionis a sort of top level entry league for young players around the world, before being transferred to better paying top leagues. While there are some top class players who have refused offers from more prestigious and better paying clubs in other leagues, such as Hugo Loria, this has not been the case in recent years.

The record transfer fee for a Pirveli Divizionis player has risen steadily over the lifetime of the competition. The highest transfer in the sport's history had a Pirveli Divizionis club on the selling end, with Khoni Mamali S.K. selling Gareth Bale to Some club for 125 million lari in 2013.

Awards

There are numerous trophies that are awarded to players based on their statistics during the regular season; they include, among others, a trophy for the league scoring champion (goals and assists), a trophy for the goal-scoring leader, and a trophy for the goaltender(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them.

The other player trophies are voted on by the VFF or the club managers. These individual awards are presented at a formal ceremony held in early December after the season has concluded. The most prestigious individual award is the Zaza Janashia Trophy, a Most Valuable Player award; the voting is conducted by members of the Pirveli Divizionis Writers Association to judge the player who is the most valuable to his club during the season. The Temuri Ketsbaia Trophy is also annually awarded to the person deemed the best goaltender as voted on by the managers of the clubs in the league. The Shota Arveladze Trophy is awarded annually to the league's top defender, the Temuri Ketsbaia Trophy is awarded annually to the best young talent, and the Kakha Kaladze Trophy is awarded to the player deemed to combine the highest degree of skill and sportsmanship; all three of these awards are voted on by members of the Pirveli Divizionis Writers Association.