Difference between revisions of "Palaiochori"

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m (clean up, added Empty section (6) tag, typos fixed: medium sized → medium-sized (2), city wide → citywide (4), a exchange → an exchange)
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The city is located around the [[Sinope Harbour]], also stretching onto the islands of Kalamos and Juktas. The ward of Kalamos is located on Kalamos Island, which sits across the entrance of the harbour. Central Palaiochori is located on a gently-rolling outcrop of land midway along the harbour, opposite Juktas Island. The boroughs of Akragas and Juktas lie the western shore, while Zakros and Stratos line the eastern shore. Kallipolis is located at the head of the harbour in the south, while the satellite wards of Olbia and Mallia are located on the western side of the Kallipolis Peninsula. Semasus and Rizinia are located inland within valleys to the west of the harbour.
 
The city is located around the [[Sinope Harbour]], also stretching onto the islands of Kalamos and Juktas. The ward of Kalamos is located on Kalamos Island, which sits across the entrance of the harbour. Central Palaiochori is located on a gently-rolling outcrop of land midway along the harbour, opposite Juktas Island. The boroughs of Akragas and Juktas lie the western shore, while Zakros and Stratos line the eastern shore. Kallipolis is located at the head of the harbour in the south, while the satellite wards of Olbia and Mallia are located on the western side of the Kallipolis Peninsula. Semasus and Rizinia are located inland within valleys to the west of the harbour.
  
Before amalgamation the city's administration was common among Aetolian cities, with the surrounding municipalities being incorporated into the metropolitan area while remaining an separate entity. However, during Palaiochori's rapid expansion in the 19th century, several medium sized cities had been swallowed up by the metropolitan area. [[Stratos]], one of the oldest continuous settlements in Aetolia, was an example of another city being incorporated into the metro area. Stratos and Palaiochori became a continuous urban area in 1899, Stratos itself having already connected with neighboring [[Kallispolis]] in 1895. This posed a challenge to the urban fabric of the city, with outlying centres opposing their incorporation and still competing with the central city in shipping and commerce. In 1901, then Prime Minister, [[NAME PERSON]], described the area as a "city of cities".
+
Before amalgamation the city's administration was common among Aetolian cities, with the surrounding municipalities being incorporated into the metropolitan area while remaining an separate entity. However, during Palaiochori's rapid expansion in the 19th century, several medium-sized cities had been swallowed up by the metropolitan area. [[Stratos]], one of the oldest continuous settlements in Aetolia, was an example of another city being incorporated into the metro area. Stratos and Palaiochori became a continuous urban area in 1899, Stratos itself having already connected with neighboring [[Kallispolis]] in 1895. This posed a challenge to the urban fabric of the city, with outlying centres opposing their incorporation and still competing with the central city in shipping and commerce. In 1901, then Prime Minister, [[NAME PERSON]], described the area as a "city of cities".
  
Eventually, the entire Sinope Harbour area had formed into one continuous metropolitan area. While the municipalities were still independent, the city generally cooperated with one another on city wide policy, as other cities in Aetolia did. However, the municipalities of Stratos and Juktas had remained fiercely independent from city-wide policy. In 1930, each municipality built their own airports and operated independent transport systems. In 1949 they still operated their ports, public transport and other infrastructure entirely separate from the rest of the metro area, while also refusing to cooperate on city-wide projects.
+
Eventually, the entire Sinope Harbour area had formed into one continuous metropolitan area. While the municipalities were still independent, the city generally cooperated with one another on citywide policy, as other cities in Aetolia did. However, the municipalities of Stratos and Juktas had remained fiercely independent from citywide policy. In 1930, each municipality built their own airports and operated independent transport systems. In 1949 they still operated their ports, public transport and other infrastructure entirely separate from the rest of the metro area, while also refusing to cooperate on citywide projects.
  
The district government was forced to dissolve the municipal authorities of Juktas and Stratos in 1968, after repeated attempts to upgrade city-wide transport had been blocked by Stratos and Juktas. They were administered directly by the district from this point.  
+
The district government was forced to dissolve the municipal authorities of Juktas and Stratos in 1968, after repeated attempts to upgrade citywide transport had been blocked by Stratos and Juktas. They were administered directly by the district from this point.
  
 
The current municipality was created in 1974 when several municipalities in the Palaiochori metropolitan area were amalgamated to form a single municipal body for the area, known as the [[Palaiochori Unitary Authority]]. The area covered by the municipality was then granted status as a district, separating from the now-defunct [[Kavala District]]. The new district was subsequently consolidated with the municipality, creating the current body. Major municipalities that were amalgamated included Akragas, Juktas, Kalamos, Kallipolis, Mallia, Olbia, Palaiochori, Rizinia, Semasus, Stratos, Zakros and Northern Zakros. These were the basis of the 15 boroughs created within the new municipality.
 
The current municipality was created in 1974 when several municipalities in the Palaiochori metropolitan area were amalgamated to form a single municipal body for the area, known as the [[Palaiochori Unitary Authority]]. The area covered by the municipality was then granted status as a district, separating from the now-defunct [[Kavala District]]. The new district was subsequently consolidated with the municipality, creating the current body. Major municipalities that were amalgamated included Akragas, Juktas, Kalamos, Kallipolis, Mallia, Olbia, Palaiochori, Rizinia, Semasus, Stratos, Zakros and Northern Zakros. These were the basis of the 15 boroughs created within the new municipality.
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==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
 +
 
==History==
 
==History==
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
 +
 
==Geography==
 
==Geography==
 
===Geology===
 
===Geology===
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===Parks and zoos===
 
===Parks and zoos===
 
==Economy==
 
==Economy==
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
 +
 
==Demographics==
 
==Demographics==
 +
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
  
 
==Culture and contemporary life==
 
==Culture and contemporary life==
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===Music===
 
===Music===
 
==Education==
 
==Education==
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
 +
 
==Environment==
 
==Environment==
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
 +
 
==Transport==
 
==Transport==
 
===Bus transport===
 
===Bus transport===
Bus transport in Palaiochori is provided by two networks, the [[Western Bus Network (Palaiochori)|Western Bus Network]] and [[Bus Central (Palaiochori)|Bus Central]]. Both are part of the [[Palaiochori Transport Authority]] mass-transit network. Western Bus Network, known by its native acronym "DDL", operates in the western wards of Kalamos, Juktas, Arkagos, Mallia, Olbia and Kallispolis; using a fleet of 220 electric ultra-low-floor trolleybuses. There is also two routes between Mallia and Olbia which use conventional diesel buses, as there is no overhead cables available. The main features of this network are the large bus exchange in [[Central Juktas Bus Exchange|Central Juktas]], and a guided bus-way between South Juktas and Kallispolis, enabling speeds of up to 100 km/h.  
+
Bus transport in Palaiochori is provided by two networks, the [[Western Bus Network (Palaiochori)|Western Bus Network]] and [[Bus Central (Palaiochori)|Bus Central]]. Both are part of the [[Palaiochori Transport Authority]] mass-transit network. Western Bus Network, known by its native acronym "DDL", operates in the western wards of Kalamos, Juktas, Arkagos, Mallia, Olbia and Kallispolis; using a fleet of 220 electric ultra-low-floor trolleybuses. There is also two routes between Mallia and Olbia which use conventional diesel buses, as there is no overhead cables available. The main features of this network are the large bus exchange in [[Central Juktas Bus Exchange|Central Juktas]], and a guided bus-way between South Juktas and Kallispolis, enabling speeds of up to 100 km/h.
  
The Bus Central network serves the parts of Palaiochori not served by DDL, primarily the eastern areas of the city, as well as parts of Kalamos and Kallispolis. There is a exchange station in Kallispolis that links the two networks together, and another in Kalamos which links northern routes. The network has a fleet of 456 buses, made up of a variety of models and types, the large proportion of the fleet being aging diesel powered buses, notorious for mechanical faults which cause delays on the network. Certain areas are currently being upgraded to trolleybus capable zones, replacing diesel buses, as part of the Eastern Bus Upgrade which aims to reduce delays and expand the capacity of eastern bus routes. The central exchange is located at the [[Kavalan National Mall]], near [[Palaiochori Central station]] and [[Palaiochori Metaxas railway station]], which is due to be replaced with a new bus exchange to the north, located adjacent to Metaxas station, which will link with an under-construction underground guided bus-way and the [[Palaiochori Tram]].
+
The Bus Central network serves the parts of Palaiochori not served by DDL, primarily the eastern areas of the city, as well as parts of Kalamos and Kallispolis. There is an exchange station in Kallispolis that links the two networks together, and another in Kalamos which links northern routes. The network has a fleet of 456 buses, made up of a variety of models and types, the large proportion of the fleet being aging diesel powered buses, notorious for mechanical faults which cause delays on the network. Certain areas are currently being upgraded to trolleybus capable zones, replacing diesel buses, as part of the Eastern Bus Upgrade which aims to reduce delays and expand the capacity of eastern bus routes. The central exchange is located at the [[Kavalan National Mall]], near [[Palaiochori Central station]] and [[Palaiochori Metaxas railway station]], which is due to be replaced with a new bus exchange to the north, located adjacent to Metaxas station, which will link with an under-construction underground guided bus-way and the [[Palaiochori Tram]].
  
In 2012 it was announced that the Bus Central network would receive replacements for its remaining fleet of aging diesel buses, which will be replaced with an efficient bio-diesel fleet. This response was mainly due to delays and limitations of the Eastern Bus Upgrade, which had fallen behind and suffered from a cut in federal funding.  
+
In 2012 it was announced that the Bus Central network would receive replacements for its remaining fleet of aging diesel buses, which will be replaced with an efficient bio-diesel fleet. This response was mainly due to delays and limitations of the Eastern Bus Upgrade, which had fallen behind and suffered from a cut in federal funding.
  
 
Services run 365 days of the year, seven days a week. The Stratos area network has ran uninterrupted for 102 years, making it the oldest surviving network in Aetolia, although some routes, as well as the operator, have changed.
 
Services run 365 days of the year, seven days a week. The Stratos area network has ran uninterrupted for 102 years, making it the oldest surviving network in Aetolia, although some routes, as well as the operator, have changed.
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Palaiochori is served by three major airports, two of which serve international flights. [[Semasus International Airport]] was opened in 1989 as a new airport to relieve the crowded [[Juktas International Airport]], the city's principal airport. Due to major overcrowding and difficulties at gaining slots at the city's international airports, many international airlines have their Aetolian flights from the major regional hub airports of [[Skopelos International Airport]] or [[Theodosia Antoninus International Airport]].
 
Palaiochori is served by three major airports, two of which serve international flights. [[Semasus International Airport]] was opened in 1989 as a new airport to relieve the crowded [[Juktas International Airport]], the city's principal airport. Due to major overcrowding and difficulties at gaining slots at the city's international airports, many international airlines have their Aetolian flights from the major regional hub airports of [[Skopelos International Airport]] or [[Theodosia Antoninus International Airport]].
  
[[Patras Airport]] is a medium sized domestic airport located in Stratos borough. It is primarily served by low-budget carriers, as well as small regional airlines. Between 1940 and 2014 international services to regional destinations were operated from the airport.
+
[[Patras Airport]] is a medium-sized domestic airport located in Stratos borough. It is primarily served by low-budget carriers, as well as small regional airlines. Between 1940 and 2014 international services to regional destinations were operated from the airport.
 
===Railways and ferry connections===
 
===Railways and ferry connections===
Palaiochori is a hub of the Aetolian railway system, with several historical railway systems having termini in the city centre. These central termini function as one "Palaiochori station", and lie within Pigaino fare zone 1. [[Palaiochori Lambros railway station|Lambros]], [[Palaiochori Metaxas railway station|Metaxas]] and [[Palaiochori Kolonos railway station|Kolonos]] are the currently operating stations, while many others operated in the past.  
+
Palaiochori is a hub of the Aetolian railway system, with several historical railway systems having termini in the city centre. These central termini function as one "Palaiochori station", and lie within Pigaino fare zone 1. [[Palaiochori Lambros railway station|Lambros]], [[Palaiochori Metaxas railway station|Metaxas]] and [[Palaiochori Kolonos railway station|Kolonos]] are the currently operating stations, while many others operated in the past.
  
 
====Ferries====
 
====Ferries====
 
Historically, ferries were the primary mode of transport in Palaiochori. However, with the opening of motorway and rail bridges and the harbour metro tunnel, their role has been greatly diminished. [[Palaiochori Ferries]] operate services between 6 terminals around the harbour using a fleet of high-speed catamarans.  
 
Historically, ferries were the primary mode of transport in Palaiochori. However, with the opening of motorway and rail bridges and the harbour metro tunnel, their role has been greatly diminished. [[Palaiochori Ferries]] operate services between 6 terminals around the harbour using a fleet of high-speed catamarans.  
 
===Motorways===
 
===Motorways===
Palaiochori is connected to the national highway network in Aetolia. There are also several major motorways connecting the city to the surrounding region. The [[M2 (Aetolian motorway)|M2]] is a large motorway that enters the city from the east through the Semasus Valley, passing close to the central city, then turning north toward [[Kavala]]. It is eight lanes wide, with four in each direction, for most of its length within Palaiochori.  
+
Palaiochori is connected to the national highway network in Aetolia. There are also several major motorways connecting the city to the surrounding region. The [[M2 (Aetolian motorway)|M2]] is a large motorway that enters the city from the east through the Semasus Valley, passing close to the central city, then turning north toward [[Kavala]]. It is eight lanes wide, with four in each direction, for most of its length within Palaiochori.
  
 
The [[M4 (Aetolian motorway)|M4]] is another major arterial route that leaves Palaiochori to the South. It connects the city to the major southern centres of [[Larissos]] and [[Theodosia]]. It runs from a junction with the M2 in Zakros, along the shoreline of Sinop Harbour until the suburb of Patras, where it moves inland and leaves the urban area. Diverging from the M4 at this point is the M7, which travels northeast along the [[Kallispollis Peninsula]], connecting the suburbs of Juktas and Akragas to the network.
 
The [[M4 (Aetolian motorway)|M4]] is another major arterial route that leaves Palaiochori to the South. It connects the city to the major southern centres of [[Larissos]] and [[Theodosia]]. It runs from a junction with the M2 in Zakros, along the shoreline of Sinop Harbour until the suburb of Patras, where it moves inland and leaves the urban area. Diverging from the M4 at this point is the M7, which travels northeast along the [[Kallispollis Peninsula]], connecting the suburbs of Juktas and Akragas to the network.

Revision as of 08:22, 24 October 2016

Palaiochori

Παλαιοχώρι
Clockwise, from top: Central Palaiochori waterfront, Port of Palaiochori from above, Port of Palaiochori cruise terminal, Zakros Valley, Port of Juktas at night, Akragas Acropolis, Tram in Kolonos Square at night and Metaxas Park.
Clockwise, from top: Central Palaiochori waterfront, Port of Palaiochori from above, Port of Palaiochori cruise terminal, Zakros Valley, Port of Juktas at night, Akragas Acropolis, Tram in Kolonos Square at night and Metaxas Park.
Flag of Palaiochori
Flag
Location of Palaiochori (red) within Aetolia
Location of Palaiochori (red) within Aetolia
Country Aetolia
Postal code
01PA

Palaiochori (Aetolian: Παλαιοχώρι) is a consolidated municipality-district and the largest city by population, in Aetolia. It is located on the western coast of the NAME Peninsula. It is bordered to the north and east by the district of Lower Kavala and to the south by the district of Pharsaly.

The city is located around the Sinope Harbour, also stretching onto the islands of Kalamos and Juktas. The ward of Kalamos is located on Kalamos Island, which sits across the entrance of the harbour. Central Palaiochori is located on a gently-rolling outcrop of land midway along the harbour, opposite Juktas Island. The boroughs of Akragas and Juktas lie the western shore, while Zakros and Stratos line the eastern shore. Kallipolis is located at the head of the harbour in the south, while the satellite wards of Olbia and Mallia are located on the western side of the Kallipolis Peninsula. Semasus and Rizinia are located inland within valleys to the west of the harbour.

Before amalgamation the city's administration was common among Aetolian cities, with the surrounding municipalities being incorporated into the metropolitan area while remaining an separate entity. However, during Palaiochori's rapid expansion in the 19th century, several medium-sized cities had been swallowed up by the metropolitan area. Stratos, one of the oldest continuous settlements in Aetolia, was an example of another city being incorporated into the metro area. Stratos and Palaiochori became a continuous urban area in 1899, Stratos itself having already connected with neighboring Kallispolis in 1895. This posed a challenge to the urban fabric of the city, with outlying centres opposing their incorporation and still competing with the central city in shipping and commerce. In 1901, then Prime Minister, NAME PERSON, described the area as a "city of cities".

Eventually, the entire Sinope Harbour area had formed into one continuous metropolitan area. While the municipalities were still independent, the city generally cooperated with one another on citywide policy, as other cities in Aetolia did. However, the municipalities of Stratos and Juktas had remained fiercely independent from citywide policy. In 1930, each municipality built their own airports and operated independent transport systems. In 1949 they still operated their ports, public transport and other infrastructure entirely separate from the rest of the metro area, while also refusing to cooperate on citywide projects.

The district government was forced to dissolve the municipal authorities of Juktas and Stratos in 1968, after repeated attempts to upgrade citywide transport had been blocked by Stratos and Juktas. They were administered directly by the district from this point.

The current municipality was created in 1974 when several municipalities in the Palaiochori metropolitan area were amalgamated to form a single municipal body for the area, known as the Palaiochori Unitary Authority. The area covered by the municipality was then granted status as a district, separating from the now-defunct Kavala District. The new district was subsequently consolidated with the municipality, creating the current body. Major municipalities that were amalgamated included Akragas, Juktas, Kalamos, Kallipolis, Mallia, Olbia, Palaiochori, Rizinia, Semasus, Stratos, Zakros and Northern Zakros. These were the basis of the 15 boroughs created within the new municipality.

The population of Palaiochori is ??? million, making it the most populated municipality in Aetolia, it is also the most populated metropolitan area in Aetolia. Before the amalgamation, Palaiochori and Stratos were ranked much lower in population among Aetolia's cities, ranking only the fourth and fifth most populous municipalities, respectively.

Etymology

History

Geography

Geology

Climate

Administration

Palaiochori is administered by the Greater Palaiochori Authority, which acts as the municipal and district governmental body. It was created in 1974 as the Palaiochori Unitary Authority, but was later renamed in 2001.

Boroughs

The municipality is divided into 15 boroughs, which are administrative divisions responsible for the waste management and fire services of the borough. They each have an elected council, with an appointed mayor as the executive.

List of boroughs

Cityscape

Architecture

Wards

Parks and zoos

Economy

Demographics

Culture and contemporary life

Archaeological hub

Museums

Tourism

Entertainment and performing arts

Sports

Palaiochori is home to many professional sports teams who compete at the national and international level.

Music

Education

Environment

Transport

Bus transport

Bus transport in Palaiochori is provided by two networks, the Western Bus Network and Bus Central. Both are part of the Palaiochori Transport Authority mass-transit network. Western Bus Network, known by its native acronym "DDL", operates in the western wards of Kalamos, Juktas, Arkagos, Mallia, Olbia and Kallispolis; using a fleet of 220 electric ultra-low-floor trolleybuses. There is also two routes between Mallia and Olbia which use conventional diesel buses, as there is no overhead cables available. The main features of this network are the large bus exchange in Central Juktas, and a guided bus-way between South Juktas and Kallispolis, enabling speeds of up to 100 km/h.

The Bus Central network serves the parts of Palaiochori not served by DDL, primarily the eastern areas of the city, as well as parts of Kalamos and Kallispolis. There is an exchange station in Kallispolis that links the two networks together, and another in Kalamos which links northern routes. The network has a fleet of 456 buses, made up of a variety of models and types, the large proportion of the fleet being aging diesel powered buses, notorious for mechanical faults which cause delays on the network. Certain areas are currently being upgraded to trolleybus capable zones, replacing diesel buses, as part of the Eastern Bus Upgrade which aims to reduce delays and expand the capacity of eastern bus routes. The central exchange is located at the Kavalan National Mall, near Palaiochori Central station and Palaiochori Metaxas railway station, which is due to be replaced with a new bus exchange to the north, located adjacent to Metaxas station, which will link with an under-construction underground guided bus-way and the Palaiochori Tram.

In 2012 it was announced that the Bus Central network would receive replacements for its remaining fleet of aging diesel buses, which will be replaced with an efficient bio-diesel fleet. This response was mainly due to delays and limitations of the Eastern Bus Upgrade, which had fallen behind and suffered from a cut in federal funding.

Services run 365 days of the year, seven days a week. The Stratos area network has ran uninterrupted for 102 years, making it the oldest surviving network in Aetolia, although some routes, as well as the operator, have changed.

Metro

Commuter/suburban rail

Tram

Air

Palaiochori is served by three major airports, two of which serve international flights. Semasus International Airport was opened in 1989 as a new airport to relieve the crowded Juktas International Airport, the city's principal airport. Due to major overcrowding and difficulties at gaining slots at the city's international airports, many international airlines have their Aetolian flights from the major regional hub airports of Skopelos International Airport or Theodosia Antoninus International Airport.

Patras Airport is a medium-sized domestic airport located in Stratos borough. It is primarily served by low-budget carriers, as well as small regional airlines. Between 1940 and 2014 international services to regional destinations were operated from the airport.

Railways and ferry connections

Palaiochori is a hub of the Aetolian railway system, with several historical railway systems having termini in the city centre. These central termini function as one "Palaiochori station", and lie within Pigaino fare zone 1. Lambros, Metaxas and Kolonos are the currently operating stations, while many others operated in the past.

Ferries

Historically, ferries were the primary mode of transport in Palaiochori. However, with the opening of motorway and rail bridges and the harbour metro tunnel, their role has been greatly diminished. Palaiochori Ferries operate services between 6 terminals around the harbour using a fleet of high-speed catamarans.

Motorways

Palaiochori is connected to the national highway network in Aetolia. There are also several major motorways connecting the city to the surrounding region. The M2 is a large motorway that enters the city from the east through the Semasus Valley, passing close to the central city, then turning north toward Kavala. It is eight lanes wide, with four in each direction, for most of its length within Palaiochori.

The M4 is another major arterial route that leaves Palaiochori to the South. It connects the city to the major southern centres of Larissos and Theodosia. It runs from a junction with the M2 in Zakros, along the shoreline of Sinop Harbour until the suburb of Patras, where it moves inland and leaves the urban area. Diverging from the M4 at this point is the M7, which travels northeast along the Kallispollis Peninsula, connecting the suburbs of Juktas and Akragas to the network.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities