Difference between revisions of "MSM"

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The MSM has had a significant beneficial effect on Varkana's business, economy, society, environment and culture in ways beyond mere construction and operation contributions. That does not include the savings from reduced reliance on imported fuel, which also has national security benefits. MSM generates social benefits, which stem from time savings, increase in reliability, comfort and safety, as well as the reduction of congestion and accidents in other modes.  
 
The MSM has had a significant beneficial effect on Varkana's business, economy, society, environment and culture in ways beyond mere construction and operation contributions. That does not include the savings from reduced reliance on imported fuel, which also has national security benefits. MSM generates social benefits, which stem from time savings, increase in reliability, comfort and safety, as well as the reduction of congestion and accidents in other modes.  
  
As part of a proto-phase of the electrification of ground transports in Varkana, the establishment of high-speed rail in the country was seen as an alternative to the polluting and fuel-dependent motor vehicles and airplanes as long-distance means of transport. Effectively over the years, MSM increasingly took over shares in transportation mode for long-distance travel, and remained relatively stable at around 15% until the [[Varkan Revolution]]. Since new lines were constructed, a more affordable fare system and an efficient network reform put in place, by the 2010's, the use of MSM skyrocketed and now stands at 65% of long-distance travel inside the country.  
+
As part of a proto-phase of the electrification of ground transports in Varkana, the establishment of high-speed rail in the country was seen as an alternative to the polluting and fuel-dependent motor vehicles and airplanes as long-distance means of transport. Effectively over the years, MSM increasingly took over shares in transportation mode for long-distance travel, and remained relatively stable at around 15% until the [[Varkan Revolution]]. Since new lines were constructed, a more affordable fare system and an efficient network reform put in place, by the 2010s, the use of MSM skyrocketed and now stands at 65% of long-distance travel inside the country.  
  
 
According to a SARK study, there is a "4-hour wall" in high-speed rail's market share, which if the high speed rail journey time exceeded 4 hours, then people would likely choose planes over high-speed rail (excluding [[Shesar]]). For instance, from [[Klow]] to [[Palaiochori]] where high-speed rail takes 40 minutes, high speed rail have 95.7% market share whereas planes have 4.3%; also from [[Klow]] to [[Kaspi]] where high-speed rail also takes the same time, the share is even lower as high-speed rail have 97.65% market share whereas planes have 2.35%. From [[Klow]] to [[Kojori]] which high-speed rail take 2 hours, high-speed rail have 76% market share whereas planes have 24%. The situation is the reverse on the [[Klow]] to [[Capua]] route where high-speed rail take 4h15m and rail only has 40% market share and planes 60%.
 
According to a SARK study, there is a "4-hour wall" in high-speed rail's market share, which if the high speed rail journey time exceeded 4 hours, then people would likely choose planes over high-speed rail (excluding [[Shesar]]). For instance, from [[Klow]] to [[Palaiochori]] where high-speed rail takes 40 minutes, high speed rail have 95.7% market share whereas planes have 4.3%; also from [[Klow]] to [[Kaspi]] where high-speed rail also takes the same time, the share is even lower as high-speed rail have 97.65% market share whereas planes have 2.35%. From [[Klow]] to [[Kojori]] which high-speed rail take 2 hours, high-speed rail have 76% market share whereas planes have 24%. The situation is the reverse on the [[Klow]] to [[Capua]] route where high-speed rail take 4h15m and rail only has 40% market share and planes 60%.

Revision as of 08:21, 24 October 2016

MSM
MSM logo.png
General Information
Locale Coat of arms of Varkana.png Varkana
Seal of Aetolia.png Aetolia
Seal of Echia.png Echia
Coats of arms of None.svg Lusitania
Coat of arms of Sakalia.png Sakalia
Seal of Svaneti.png Svaneti
Coats of arms of None.svg South
Type High speed rail
Lines 11 (+2 in construction)
No. of stations 48 (+5 in construction)
Ridership 75.5 million (FY 2015)
Operation
Began Operation 1981
Operator(s) SARK
Technical
System length 2,517 km (Varkana only)
4,744 km (all MSM lines)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in) standard gauge
Average speed
Top speed
280 km/h (all MSM lines)
350 km/h (operational)
MSM network map 2015.png
Current network map

The MSM (Varkan: მსმ for მაღალი სიჩქარით მატარებელი, maghali sichkarit matarebeli; "high-speed train") is Varkana's high-speed rail service, operated by SARK, the national rail operator. Following the inaugural service between Klow and Kaspi in 1981 on the MSR Kaspi ("MSR") (Varkan: მაღალი სიჩქარით რკინიგზის, maghali sichkarit rkinigzis; high-speed railroad) in 1981 during the presidency of Khatia Ochiauri, the network, centered on Klow, has expanded to connect many cities across Varkana and in adjacent countries on high-speed lines. It is the second densest high-speed rail system in the world at 15.1 m/km², just behind Aetolia. With Shesar included, however, it becomes the densest in the world by a considerable majority.

History

TBD

Technology

To enable high-speed operation, MSM uses a range of advanced technology compared with conventional rail, and it achieved not only high speed but also a high standard of safety and comfort.

Routing

MSM routes are completely separate from conventional rail lines. Consequently, the MSM is not affected by slower local or freight trains, and has the capacity to operate many high-speed trains punctually. The lines have been built without road crossings at grade. Tracks are strictly off-limits with penalties against trespassing strictly regulated by law. It uses tunnels and viaducts to go through and over obstacles rather than around them, with a minimum curve radius of five kilometers.

The line most heavily utilized by MSM trains is the railway between Klow and Zestafoni due to the bundling of many MSM lines in that region. When considering all traffic (freight, local and long distance passenger), the busiest line carrying MSM traffic is the Klow-Theodosia line, carrying about 200 trains per day.

Track

The MSM uses 1,435 mm (4 ft 8½ in) standard gauge all over the network. Continuous welded rail and swingnose crossing points are employed, eliminating gaps at turnouts and crossings. Long rails are used, joined by expansion joints to minimize gauge fluctuation due to thermal elongation and shrinkage. MSM track construction has a few key differences from normal railway lines. The radii of curves are larger so that trains can traverse them at higher speeds without increasing the centripetal acceleration felt by passengers. The radii of MSR curves have historically been greater than 5 kilometers: new lines have minimum radii of 7 kilometers to allow for future increases in speed. MSRs can incorporate steeper gradients than normal. This facilitates planning and reduces their cost of construction. The high power/weight and adhesive weight/total weight ratios of MSMs allow them to climb much steeper grades than conventional trains. The considerable momentum at high speeds also helps to climb these slopes very fast without greatly increasing energy consumption.

A combination of ballasted and slab track are used, with slab track exclusively employed on concrete bed sections such as viaducts and tunnels. Slab track is significantly more cost-effective in tunnel sections, since the lower track height reduces the cross-sectional area of the tunnel, thereby reducing construction costs by up to 30%. All tunnels have entrance hoods to mitigate tunnel boom effects.

Signal system

Because MSMs on MSRs travel too fast for their drivers to see and react to traditional lineside signals, an automated system called "track-to-train transmission" is used for signalling. Information is transmitted to trains by electrical pulses sent through the rails, providing speed, target speed, and stop/go indications directly to the driver via dashboard-mounted instruments. This high degree of automation does not eliminate driver control, though there are safeguards that can safely stop the train in the event of driver error. An MSR is divided into signal blocks of about 1,500 meters with the boundaries marked by blue boards with a yellow triangle. Dashboard instruments show the maximum permitted speed for the current block and a target speed based on the profile of the line ahead. The speeds are based on factors such as the proximity of trains ahead (with steadily decreasing speeds permitted in blocks closer to the rear of the next train), junction placement, speed restrictions, the top speed of the train and distance from the end of the MSR. As trains cannot usually stop within one signal block, which can range in length from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers, drivers are alerted to slow gradually several blocks before a required stop.

Electrical Systems

MSMs travel at up to 350 km/h in commercial use. All are at least bi-current, which means that they can operate at 25 kV, 50 Hz AC and at 1.5 kV DC. Trains to Svaneti, Sakalia, Echia and South must accommodate other voltages, requiring tri-current and quadri-current MSMs. MSMs have two pairs of pantographs, two for AC use and two for DC. When passing between areas of different supply voltage, marker boards remind the driver to turn off power, lower the pantograph(s), adjust a switch to select the appropriate system, and raise the pantograph(s). Pantographs and pantograph height control are selected automatically based on the voltage system chosen by the driver. Once the train detects the correct supply, a dashboard indicator illuminates and the driver can switch on the traction motors. The train coasts across the boundary between sections.

Trains

Functioning on the third generation of trains, which started operations in 2007, MSM trains have only two variants, the long-distance bilevel MSM with a restaurant car, and the medium to short-distance monolevel MSM, without restaurant car. Each train is formed of a varying number of carriages paired with new power cars, with a total power output of 9.6 MW (12,900 hp) and a top speed of 350 kilometers per hour under 25 kV. Each MSM trainset weighs 383 t (377 long tons; 422 short tons) and is numbered in the 4400 series. The livery is the same as that of earlier generation MSM sets (silver and blue).

MSMs have semi-permanently coupled articulated un-powered coaches, with Jacobs bogies between the coaches supporting both of them. Power cars at each end of the trains have their own bogies. Trains can be lengthened by coupling two TGVs, using couplers hidden in the noses of the power cars.

Interior

The MSM trains adhere to a high standard of technology: all cars are fully air-conditioned and nearly every seat features a headphone jack which enables the passenger to listen to several on-board music and voice programs as well as several radio stations. All cars are equipped with free wi-fi service. Each train is equipped with special cars that feature in-train repeaters for improved mobile phone reception as well as designated quiet zones where the use of mobile phones is discouraged. The newer trains also have larger digital displays in all coaches, displaying, among other things, SARK advertising, the predicted arrival time at the next destination and the current speed of the train. All trains feature a disabled toilet and wheelchair spaces.

Punctuality

The MSM system is a polycentric network. Connections are offered in either 30-minute, hourly or bi-hourly intervals. Furthermore, additional services run during peak times, and some services call at lesser stations during off-peak times.

Economics

The MSM has had a significant beneficial effect on Varkana's business, economy, society, environment and culture in ways beyond mere construction and operation contributions. That does not include the savings from reduced reliance on imported fuel, which also has national security benefits. MSM generates social benefits, which stem from time savings, increase in reliability, comfort and safety, as well as the reduction of congestion and accidents in other modes.

As part of a proto-phase of the electrification of ground transports in Varkana, the establishment of high-speed rail in the country was seen as an alternative to the polluting and fuel-dependent motor vehicles and airplanes as long-distance means of transport. Effectively over the years, MSM increasingly took over shares in transportation mode for long-distance travel, and remained relatively stable at around 15% until the Varkan Revolution. Since new lines were constructed, a more affordable fare system and an efficient network reform put in place, by the 2010s, the use of MSM skyrocketed and now stands at 65% of long-distance travel inside the country.

According to a SARK study, there is a "4-hour wall" in high-speed rail's market share, which if the high speed rail journey time exceeded 4 hours, then people would likely choose planes over high-speed rail (excluding Shesar). For instance, from Klow to Palaiochori where high-speed rail takes 40 minutes, high speed rail have 95.7% market share whereas planes have 4.3%; also from Klow to Kaspi where high-speed rail also takes the same time, the share is even lower as high-speed rail have 97.65% market share whereas planes have 2.35%. From Klow to Kojori which high-speed rail take 2 hours, high-speed rail have 76% market share whereas planes have 24%. The situation is the reverse on the Klow to Capua route where high-speed rail take 4h15m and rail only has 40% market share and planes 60%.

List of lines

The existing MSM lines are:

Line Start End Length Operator Opened Annual passengers
km mi
MSR Kaspi Klow Central Kaspi Printsi 166 103 SARK 1981 14,015,000
MSR Tsqaltubo Klow Central Tsqaltubo/Botão Norte (+717 km) 266 165 SARK 1982 22,155,000
MSR Alazani Klow Central Gali/?? (+56 km) 567 352 SARK 1983 26,177,000
MSR Anaklia Klow Central Anaklia/Sozopolis (+108.5 km) 339.5 211.0 SARK 1985 12,831,000
MSR Mtkavari Kaspi Central Shapo/Adygekale (+94.5 km) 321.5 199.8 SARK 1987 8,420,000
MSR Palaiochori Klow Central Palaiochori Lambros 195.3 121.4 SARK 1989 14,420,000
MSR Salona Kaspi Central Salona 280.2 174.1 SARK 1992 4,307,000
MSR Dasavleti Kaspi Central Chiatura 491.7 305.5 SARK 1994 6,140,000
MSR Abasha Rustavi Abasha/Pyrgos (+35 km) 159.7 99.2 SARK 1996 2,544,000
MSR Mizia Pitsunda Mizia 665 413 SARK 2011 1,262,000
MSR Capua Kojori Capua 466.4 289.8 SARK 2014 2,368,000

Aetolian State Railways also operates on the MSR Palaiochori route, with annual passengers of 20,225,000, bringing the total for the line at 34.6 million. In practice, the MSR Tsqaltubo and Lusitanian ?? lines, the MSR Kaspi and MSR Salona lines, the MSR Salona and MSR Mtkavari, the MSR Abasha and Aetolian ?? lines, the MSR Alazani and Aetolian ?? lines, and the MSR Anaklia and Aetolian ?? lines are contiguous respectively. MSM operates some trains on connected neighboring high speed rail tracks, while a few foreign companies do the same on MSM tracks up to certain stations. Most other lines are physically connected at various stations, but there is no through service between those lines. Additionally, some lines run parallel with each other on the same tracks.

Future lines

Line Speed Length Construction began Expected start of revenue services
km/h mph km mi
MSR Theodosia 350 220 227 141 2009 FY2022
MVM Senaki 820 510 133.4 82.9 2012 FY2034

MSM technology outside Varkana

Railways using MSM technology are not limited to those in Varkana.

Existing

  •  Kotcija: TBD
  •  Sakalia: SNG (Sakalskite Natsionalni Zheleznitsi) operates MSM 3rd generation trains on its network;
  •  Svaneti: MSM operates trains from Adygekale on the MSR Mtkavari line under SARK through an official agreement between the governments of Varkana and Svaneti.

Under contract

  •  Vasaras: The Vasaras government agreed to a ₭5 billion contract for SARK to build an MSR between Digora and Mazou, to be operational in 2017.

Proposed subject to funding

  •  Durrani: TBD
  •  Vasaras &  Sakalia: An MSR between Mizia and Digora has been agreed by the Sakalian, Vasaras and Varkan governments, which would connect Varkana's MSM network to Vasaras.

Potential opportunities

See also