Difference between revisions of "Klow"

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'''Klow''' is the second largest [[Communes of Varkana|commune]] of [[Varkana]] and the economic, political and cultural capital of the Republic of Varkana. It is located in Northern Varkana on the southern shore of the [[Iremian Sea]].  
+
'''Klow''' is the second largest [[Communes of Varkana|commune]] of [[Varkana]] and the economic, political and cultural capital of the Republic of Varkana. It is located in Northern Varkana on the southern shore of the [[Iremian Sea]].
  
Oldest city in the country, founded under the name of Χλωδόβα (''Chlo̱dova'') around 600 BC by [[Aetolia]]n sailors, Klow has since ancient times been an important trading port. Founded as an Aetolian commercial city, Klow and the rest of northern Varkana was conquered by the Varkans in the late Antiquity, originating from [[Senaki]]. After merging with the [[Kingdom of Kaxet'i]], Klow continued to be an important city in the [[Mesogean Sea]]. The city experienced a considerable commercial development in the nineteenth century after the independence. Taking advantage of the expansion of the First Varkan Republic, it became a thriving industrial city. It remains today the first Varkan port, the second Mesogean port and the fourth Illypnian port. Suffering from economic difficulties of the 1970s due to de-industrialization and the ''coup d'état'' led by [[Ioseb Jugashvili]] that destabilized the country, as well as a bad image linked to its increased banditry, the city now knows an urban, economic and cultural revival since the early 2000s.  
+
Oldest city in the country, founded under the name of Χλωδόβα (''Chlo̱dova'') around 600 BC by [[Aetolia]]n sailors, Klow has since ancient times been an important trading port. Founded as an Aetolian commercial city, Klow and the rest of northern Varkana was conquered by the Varkans in the late Antiquity, originating from [[Senaki]]. After merging with the [[Kingdom of Kaxet'i]], Klow continued to be an important city in the [[Mesogean Sea]]. The city experienced a considerable commercial development in the nineteenth century after the independence. Taking advantage of the expansion of the First Varkan Republic, it became a thriving industrial city. It remains today the first Varkan port, the second Mesogean port and the fourth Illypnian port. Suffering from economic difficulties of the 1970s due to de-industrialization and the ''coup d'état'' led by [[Ioseb Jugashvili]] that destabilized the country, as well as a bad image linked to its increased banditry, the city now knows an urban, economic and cultural revival since the early 2000s.
  
 
The opening of Klow on the [[Mesogean Sea]] helped to create a cosmopolitan city with cultural and economic exchanges with the rest of [[Illypnia]], [[Kaftia]] and [[Fosia]]. It is also sometimes referred to as the "Gateway to the East". Its population, built on successive waves of immigration from various Mesogean countries since the mid-nineteenth century, today remains heavily marked by multiculturalism. The leading Varkan companies and international corporations doing business there have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Klow. Recent industrial statistics show the Varkan capital retains its historical position as the main industrial zone of the country.
 
The opening of Klow on the [[Mesogean Sea]] helped to create a cosmopolitan city with cultural and economic exchanges with the rest of [[Illypnia]], [[Kaftia]] and [[Fosia]]. It is also sometimes referred to as the "Gateway to the East". Its population, built on successive waves of immigration from various Mesogean countries since the mid-nineteenth century, today remains heavily marked by multiculturalism. The leading Varkan companies and international corporations doing business there have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Klow. Recent industrial statistics show the Varkan capital retains its historical position as the main industrial zone of the country.
  
 
==Etymology==
 
==Etymology==
Klow comes from the Aetolian name of the city, Χλωδόβα (''Chlo̱dova''). It was first permanent Aetolian settlement in Varkana, and the oldest city, established at modern-day Klow in about 600 BC by colonists coming from "Turkish speaking region".  
+
Klow comes from the Aetolian name of the city, Χλωδόβα (''Chlo̱dova''). It was first permanent Aetolian settlement in Varkana, and the oldest city, established at modern-day Klow in about 600 BC by colonists coming from "Turkish speaking region".
  
 
==History==
 
==History==
 +
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
  
 
==Geography==
 
==Geography==
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==Economy==
 
==Economy==
 +
 +
{{Empty section|date=October 2016}}
  
 
==Main sights==
 
==Main sights==
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==Transport==
 
==Transport==
 
===International and intercommunal transport===
 
===International and intercommunal transport===
The commune of Klow is a hub for the [[Varkan motorway system]], the ავტომაგისტრალი (''avtomagistrali''), and is served by the M-10, M-20, M-220, M-210, M-215, and M-410. Many of these motorways are frequently congested at rush hour. However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the implementation of [[Shesar]] throughout the country. The Shesar is a high speed elevated monorail network that connects several communes of the country to Klow.  
+
The commune of Klow is a hub for the [[Varkan motorway system]], the ავტომაგისტრალი (''avtomagistrali''), and is served by the M-10, M-20, M-220, M-210, M-215, and M-410. Many of these motorways are frequently congested at rush hour. However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the implementation of [[Shesar]] throughout the country. The Shesar is a high speed elevated monorail network that connects several communes of the country to Klow.
  
The commune is served by an international airport, [[President Inga Korsantia International Airport]], located in [[Vale]]. The airport is the ??th busiest in Illypnia and the busiest in the country.  
+
The commune is served by an international airport, [[President Inga Korsantia International Airport]], located in [[Vale]]. The airport is the ??th busiest in Illypnia and the busiest in the country.
  
 
The [[Klow Central station]] is Varkana's main railway station. It operates direct high speed rail services to neighbouring countries. It is also one of the main terminal stations for high speed rail in the south of Illypnia making Klow reachable in an hour from [[Palaiochori]] (a distance of 250 km) and one and a half hours from [[Elaia]]. There are also direct lines to "major cities in the area". There is a large [[Shesar]] station adjacent to a new modern extension to the central station with destinations all over the country.
 
The [[Klow Central station]] is Varkana's main railway station. It operates direct high speed rail services to neighbouring countries. It is also one of the main terminal stations for high speed rail in the south of Illypnia making Klow reachable in an hour from [[Palaiochori]] (a distance of 250 km) and one and a half hours from [[Elaia]]. There are also direct lines to "major cities in the area". There is a large [[Shesar]] station adjacent to a new modern extension to the central station with destinations all over the country.
Line 175: Line 179:
  
 
===Public transport===
 
===Public transport===
Klow is connected by the [[Capital Metro]] train system operated by the [[Capital Region Transit Authority]]. It consists of 8 lines serving 242 stations, with an overall route length of 239 kilometers stretching throughout the communes of Klow, [[Oni]], [[Vale]], and [[Zestafoni]]. The metro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths.  
+
Klow is connected by the [[Capital Metro]] train system operated by the [[Capital Region Transit Authority]]. It consists of 8 lines serving 242 stations, with an overall route length of 239 kilometers stretching throughout the communes of Klow, [[Oni]], [[Vale]], and [[Zestafoni]]. The metro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths.
  
An extensive bus network serves the city and surrounding communes, with 204 lines and 1,233 buses.  
+
An extensive bus network serves the city and surrounding communes, with 204 lines and 1,233 buses.
  
 
A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and the 8th District; from spring 2013 it also runs to the 16th District. There are also ferry services and boat trips available from the Old Port to ფრიოლ (''Priol''), the Fjords and [[Oni]].
 
A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and the 8th District; from spring 2013 it also runs to the 16th District. There are also ferry services and boat trips available from the Old Port to ფრიოლ (''Priol''), the Fjords and [[Oni]].
  
 
==Culture==
 
==Culture==
The culture of Klow is reflected by its size and variety. Most Varkan cultural movements first emerged in the city. Klow is an important center for music, film, theater, dance and visual art. Artists have been drawn into the city by opportunity, as the city government funds the arts with adequate financial resources.  
+
The culture of Klow is reflected by its size and variety. Most Varkan cultural movements first emerged in the city. Klow is an important center for music, film, theater, dance and visual art. Artists have been drawn into the city by opportunity, as the city government funds the arts with adequate financial resources.
  
Klow is a prominent location for the Varkan entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media set there. Klow is the largest center for film and television production in Varkana. In 2011, it employed more than 50,000 people and generated 63.9% of revenues of the media industry in the country. Klow is the media center of Varkana, and the location of the main headquarters of Varkan Television and other numerous local and national TV and radio stations.  
+
Klow is a prominent location for the Varkan entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media set there. Klow is the largest center for film and television production in Varkana. In 2011, it employed more than 50,000 people and generated 63.9% of revenues of the media industry in the country. Klow is the media center of Varkana, and the location of the main headquarters of Varkan Television and other numerous local and national TV and radio stations.
  
 
In Klow, as throughout the northern communes of Varkana, the most popular forms of music are ??, ?? and ??. U/C
 
In Klow, as throughout the northern communes of Varkana, the most popular forms of music are ??, ?? and ??. U/C
  
Food specialties in Klow are numerous, including [[kvabi|royal kvabi]], Varkan [[wikipedia:Tapenade|tapenade]] (based preparation capers, anchovies and crushed olives), [[wikipedia:Bouillabaisse|kvemot]] (rock fish-based dish, sauces and vegetables), the ''navi'' (hard biscuit and flavored orange blossom boat-shaped), [[wikipedia:Fougasse (bread)|pogassi]], [[wikipedia:Pieds paquets|pekhebi da paketebi]] prepared with mutton tripe, feet, sheep and bacon. [[wikipedia:Pastis|Pastis]] is an iconic drink of the city: it is an alcoholic drink made from spices and anise. Local wines are also common, as well as microbreweries found across the commune.  
+
Food specialties in Klow are numerous, including [[kvabi|royal kvabi]], Varkan [[wikipedia:Tapenade|tapenade]] (based preparation capers, anchovies and crushed olives), [[wikipedia:Bouillabaisse|kvemot]] (rock fish-based dish, sauces and vegetables), the ''navi'' (hard biscuit and flavored orange blossom boat-shaped), [[wikipedia:Fougasse (bread)|pogassi]], [[wikipedia:Pieds paquets|pekhebi da paketebi]] prepared with mutton tripe, feet, sheep and bacon. [[wikipedia:Pastis|Pastis]] is an iconic drink of the city: it is an alcoholic drink made from spices and anise. Local wines are also common, as well as microbreweries found across the commune.
  
 
Klow restaurants reflect diversity, with menus carrying traditional regional cuisine, fusions of various culinary influences, or innovating in the leading edge of new techniques. Klow's food shops also have a solid reputation for supplying quality specialized culinary products and supplies, reputations that are often built up over generations.
 
Klow restaurants reflect diversity, with menus carrying traditional regional cuisine, fusions of various culinary influences, or innovating in the leading edge of new techniques. Klow's food shops also have a solid reputation for supplying quality specialized culinary products and supplies, reputations that are often built up over generations.

Revision as of 08:18, 24 October 2016

Klow

ქლოვ
klov
Skyline of Klow
Skyline of Klow
Coat of arms of Klow
Coat of arms
CountryVarkana
RegionNorthern Varkana
Districts
Government
 • PrefectBidzina Ivanishvili
Population
 (2016)
 • Total2,112,526
Demonym(s)Klovian
Postal code
13000
Websiteklov.va

Klow is the second largest commune of Varkana and the economic, political and cultural capital of the Republic of Varkana. It is located in Northern Varkana on the southern shore of the Iremian Sea.

Oldest city in the country, founded under the name of Χλωδόβα (Chlo̱dova) around 600 BC by Aetolian sailors, Klow has since ancient times been an important trading port. Founded as an Aetolian commercial city, Klow and the rest of northern Varkana was conquered by the Varkans in the late Antiquity, originating from Senaki. After merging with the Kingdom of Kaxet'i, Klow continued to be an important city in the Mesogean Sea. The city experienced a considerable commercial development in the nineteenth century after the independence. Taking advantage of the expansion of the First Varkan Republic, it became a thriving industrial city. It remains today the first Varkan port, the second Mesogean port and the fourth Illypnian port. Suffering from economic difficulties of the 1970s due to de-industrialization and the coup d'état led by Ioseb Jugashvili that destabilized the country, as well as a bad image linked to its increased banditry, the city now knows an urban, economic and cultural revival since the early 2000s.

The opening of Klow on the Mesogean Sea helped to create a cosmopolitan city with cultural and economic exchanges with the rest of Illypnia, Kaftia and Fosia. It is also sometimes referred to as the "Gateway to the East". Its population, built on successive waves of immigration from various Mesogean countries since the mid-nineteenth century, today remains heavily marked by multiculturalism. The leading Varkan companies and international corporations doing business there have their headquarters and main industrial facilities in Klow. Recent industrial statistics show the Varkan capital retains its historical position as the main industrial zone of the country.

Etymology

Klow comes from the Aetolian name of the city, Χλωδόβα (Chlo̱dova). It was first permanent Aetolian settlement in Varkana, and the oldest city, established at modern-day Klow in about 600 BC by colonists coming from "Turkish speaking region".

History

Geography

Klow is the largest commune in Varkana and the largest metropolitan area. To the west, starting in the small fishing village of Jvari on the outskirts of Klow and stretching as far as Kassis, are the Shesasvlelis, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets. Further west still are the Gombori (a 1,147 m mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees), the commune of Oni. To the south of Klow, beyond the low Trialeti and Saguramo mountain ranges, is the 1,011 m (3,317 ft) Mount Mariamjvari. To the east of Klow is the former artists' commune of Vale; further east is the Sinora River delta. The airport lies to the south east of the city in Vale on the shore of Lake Bazaleti.

The commune's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the Alazani) stretches westward from the Old Port (ძველი პორტი, dzveli porti) to the Reformed quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port — Fort Amirani on the north side and Fort Kopala on the south. Further out in the Bay of Klow is the Trialeti archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, Avchala, is the location of Avchala Castle, made famous by the novel Revolution. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Alazani at Rustaveli street and the Stock Exchange. The centre of Klow has several pedestrianised zones, most notably Rustaveli street, Square Sololaki near the Music Conservatory, the Square Redix Chavchavadze off the Old Port and the area around City Hall. To the north west of central Klow in the 6th district are the communal police headquarters and the monumental fountain of Marjanishvili Plaza, an important bus and metro interchange. To the north east are the hills of the 7th district, dominated by the Dedamitsaze Temple. The railway station — Klow Central station — is south of the Stock Exchange in the 1st district; it is linked by the Elaia boulevard to the Alazani.

Climate

Klow has a Mediterranean climate with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers. December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around 12 °C (54 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around 28–30 °C (82–86 °F) during the day and 19 °C (66 °F) at night in the President Inga Korsantia International Airport (35 km (22 mi) from Klow) but in the city near the sea the average temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) in July. Klow is officially the sunniest major city in Varkana with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in Varkana is around 1,950 hours and is also the driest major city with only 512 mm (20 in) of precipitation annually, especially due to the Saburtalo which is a cold, dry wind originating in the "Aetolian name" Valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring and which generally brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region.

Economy

Main sights

Central Klow

Klow is listed as a major center of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and temples of historical interest. Most of the attractions of Klow (including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th districts.

These include:

  • The Old Port or ძველი პორტი (dzveli porti), the main harbor and marina of the city. It is guarded by two massive forts and is one of the main places to eat in the city. Dozens of cafés line the waterfront. The Dock of Aetolians or ბერძნული ნავსაშენი (berdznuli navsasheni) at the end of the harbor is the site of the daily fish market. Much of the southern quayside area was rebuilt after its destruction by the "Invading country that ended the war in Varkana" in 1943.
  • The Dalila lighthouse or შუქურა დალილა (shukura dalila), a lighthouse on the inlet to the Old Port.
  • The Old Charity or ძველი საქველმოქმედო (dzveli sakvelmokmedo) in the Kalatashi, an architecturally significant building. The central baroque temple is situated in a courtyard lined with arcaded galleries. Originally built as an alms house, it is now home to an archeological museum and a gallery of Kaftian and Fosian art, as well as bookshops and a café. It also houses the Klow International Poetry Centre.
  • The Stock Center and the adjacent kucha ochopintre district (including kucha aetolia and kucha erovnuli), the main shopping area in central Klow.
  • The Stock Exchange Palace or საფონდო ბირჟაზე სასახლეში (sapondo birzhaze sasakhleshi), a 19th-century building housing the chamber of commerce, the first such institution in Varkana. It also contains a small museum, charting the maritime and commercial history of Klow, as well as a separate collection of models of ships.
  • The Ana Kalanda park.
  • The Sibraze Building, a former hospital in the Kalatashi, currently being transformed into an InterContinental hotel.
  • The Temple of Poseidon, dating from the first Aetolian settlers. Its 5th-century crypt and catacombs occupy the site of an Aetolian burial ground, later used for important citizens and venerated ever since.
  • The City Hall (მერია; meria), a baroque building dating from the 17th century.
  • The Cathedral of Klow, founded in the 4th century, enlarged in the 11th century and completely rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century, a gigantic Christian church in Mesogean-Aetolian style, and the only Catholic place of worship remaining in Varkana. A latinesque transept, choir and altar survive from the older medieval cathedral, spared from complete destruction only as a result of public protests at the time.

U/C

Demographics

Immigration

Education

Transport

International and intercommunal transport

The commune of Klow is a hub for the Varkan motorway system, the ავტომაგისტრალი (avtomagistrali), and is served by the M-10, M-20, M-220, M-210, M-215, and M-410. Many of these motorways are frequently congested at rush hour. However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the implementation of Shesar throughout the country. The Shesar is a high speed elevated monorail network that connects several communes of the country to Klow.

The commune is served by an international airport, President Inga Korsantia International Airport, located in Vale. The airport is the ??th busiest in Illypnia and the busiest in the country.

The Klow Central station is Varkana's main railway station. It operates direct high speed rail services to neighbouring countries. It is also one of the main terminal stations for high speed rail in the south of Illypnia making Klow reachable in an hour from Palaiochori (a distance of 250 km) and one and a half hours from Elaia. There are also direct lines to "major cities in the area". There is a large Shesar station adjacent to a new modern extension to the central station with destinations all over the country.

Klow has a large ferry terminal, the Maritime Station, with services to Aetolia, Echia, Central Italian, Tuscan, Sardinian and Venetian. It is located in the western part of the Port of Klow, near the Cathedral of Klow. The Port of Klow has a 2600 year old history and a great contemporary commercial importance. In 2015 the port had an overall traffic of 88 million tons, it is located in two main sites, in southern Klow from the 2nd District to the 16th District. The port generates 38,000 jobs and 4 billion lari of value added. The port is the second biggest Varkan port after the Port of Vale, the tenth biggest Mesogean Sea port and the 8th Illypnian port, making it the 48th port in Adonia in 2015, with 76,997 thousand tons of goods transported.

Public transport

Klow is connected by the Capital Metro train system operated by the Capital Region Transit Authority. It consists of 8 lines serving 242 stations, with an overall route length of 239 kilometers stretching throughout the communes of Klow, Oni, Vale, and Zestafoni. The metro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths.

An extensive bus network serves the city and surrounding communes, with 204 lines and 1,233 buses.

A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and the 8th District; from spring 2013 it also runs to the 16th District. There are also ferry services and boat trips available from the Old Port to ფრიოლ (Priol), the Fjords and Oni.

Culture

The culture of Klow is reflected by its size and variety. Most Varkan cultural movements first emerged in the city. Klow is an important center for music, film, theater, dance and visual art. Artists have been drawn into the city by opportunity, as the city government funds the arts with adequate financial resources.

Klow is a prominent location for the Varkan entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media set there. Klow is the largest center for film and television production in Varkana. In 2011, it employed more than 50,000 people and generated 63.9% of revenues of the media industry in the country. Klow is the media center of Varkana, and the location of the main headquarters of Varkan Television and other numerous local and national TV and radio stations.

In Klow, as throughout the northern communes of Varkana, the most popular forms of music are ??, ?? and ??. U/C

Food specialties in Klow are numerous, including royal kvabi, Varkan tapenade (based preparation capers, anchovies and crushed olives), kvemot (rock fish-based dish, sauces and vegetables), the navi (hard biscuit and flavored orange blossom boat-shaped), pogassi, pekhebi da paketebi prepared with mutton tripe, feet, sheep and bacon. Pastis is an iconic drink of the city: it is an alcoholic drink made from spices and anise. Local wines are also common, as well as microbreweries found across the commune.

Klow restaurants reflect diversity, with menus carrying traditional regional cuisine, fusions of various culinary influences, or innovating in the leading edge of new techniques. Klow's food shops also have a solid reputation for supplying quality specialized culinary products and supplies, reputations that are often built up over generations.

Nightlife

During the all of its history, Klow became well known as one of Illypnia's "sin cities" with unparalleled nightlife, a reputation it still holds today. In part, its bustling nightlife is attributed to its relatively late "last call" (3 a.m.), a large university population, the drinking and sexual intercourse age of 16, the Armazist libertine acceptance, and the excellent public transportation system combines with other aspects of the Klow culture to make the city's night life unique. The diversity of the clubs in Klow attests to the popularity of its night life, with night clubs, pubs, bars and singing bars (karaokes), Mesogean clubs, Kaftian clubs, jazz clubs, lounges, after-hours houses, and strip clubs all attracting different types of customers. With prostitution and cannabis legal and regulated throughout the country, Klow has also been known to attract sex tourists and drug tourists. The most active parts of Klow's night life are the 1st and 6th Districts.

Sport

International relations

Sister cities