Difference between revisions of "Kingdom of Varkana"

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The '''Kingdom of Varkana''' ([[wikipedia:Georgian language|Varkan]]: საქართველოს სამეფო, ''sakartvelos samepo'') was the predominantly [[wikipedia:Georgian language|Varkan]]-speaking union the Varkan peoples into a unified Kingdom that emerged in the late Antiquity and ended in the Middle Ages with a [[wikipedia:dual monarchy|dual monarchy]] with [[Aetolia]]. Its capital city was initially [[Senaki]], before moving to [[Zestafoni]] in 1021, and finally settle in [[Klow]] in 1418.  
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The '''Kingdom of Varkana''' ([[wikipedia:Georgian language|Varkan]]: საქართველოს სამეფო, ''sakartvelos samepo'') was the predominantly [[wikipedia:Georgian language|Varkan]]-speaking union the Varkan peoples into a unified Kingdom that emerged in the late Antiquity and ended in the Middle Ages with a [[wikipedia:dual monarchy|dual monarchy]] with [[Aetolia]]. Its capital city was initially [[Senaki]], before moving to [[Zestafoni]] in 1021, and finally settle in [[Klow]] in 1418.
  
 
==Political history==
 
==Political history==
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==Economy==
 
==Economy==
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==Science, medicine and law==
 
==Science, medicine and law==
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==Religion==
 
==Religion==
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==Art and literature==
 
==Art and literature==
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==Music==
 
==Music==
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==Cuisine and recreation==
 
==Cuisine and recreation==
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==Government and bureaucracy==
 
==Government and bureaucracy==
 
===Diplomacy===
 
===Diplomacy===
 
===Flags and insignia===
 
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==Language==
 
==Language==
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==Legacy==
 
==Legacy==
Varkana has been often identified in Christian Illypnia with intolerance, pagan spirituality, orientalism and exoticism, while the terms "Varkan" and "Varkanism" have been used as bywords for decadence, complex bureaucracy, and repression. Both Northern and Southern Illypnian authors have often perceived Varkana and its neighbor [[Aetolia]] as a body of religious, political, and philosophical ideas contrary to those of the West.  
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Varkana has been often identified in Christian Illypnia with intolerance, pagan spirituality, orientalism and exoticism, while the terms "Varkan" and "Varkanism" have been used as bywords for decadence, complex bureaucracy, and repression. Both Northern and Southern Illypnian authors have often perceived Varkana and its neighbor [[Aetolia]] as a body of religious, political, and philosophical ideas contrary to those of the West.
  
 
This traditional approach towards the Kingdom of Varkana has been partially or wholly disputed and revised by modern studies, which focus on the positive aspects of Varkan culture and legacy. .
 
This traditional approach towards the Kingdom of Varkana has been partially or wholly disputed and revised by modern studies, which focus on the positive aspects of Varkan culture and legacy. .

Revision as of 08:18, 24 October 2016

Kingdom of Varkana
საქართველოს სამეფო
sakartvelos samepo
455–1428
Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Senaki (455-1021)
Zestafoni (1021-1418)
Klow (1418-1428)
Languages Varkan
Galian
Kaspian
Religion Armazism
Government Monarchy
Monarch
 -  455-463 Latavri I
 -  1406-1428 Esukan VIII
Hand
 -  584-606 Vakhtang Koridze
 -  1412-1434 Person
History
 -  Unification 455
 -  Union with Aetolia 1428
Population
 -  855 est. 1,500,000 
 -  1428 est. 4,000,000 

The Kingdom of Varkana (Varkan: საქართველოს სამეფო, sakartvelos samepo) was the predominantly Varkan-speaking union the Varkan peoples into a unified Kingdom that emerged in the late Antiquity and ended in the Middle Ages with a dual monarchy with Aetolia. Its capital city was initially Senaki, before moving to Zestafoni in 1021, and finally settle in Klow in 1418.

Political history

Unification of Varkana

During the Antiquity, three main kingdoms were present on modern Varkana's territory: the Kingdom of Valyria, the Kingdom of Gali and the Kingdom of Kartli. These kingdoms were vassals, client states of Aetolia. However, a later ruler of Kartli, Pharsman IV (448-450), preserved his country's autonomy and decided to cease paying tribute to Aetolia. Aetolia prevailed, and they began to appoint a viceroy to keep watch on their Kartli vassal. This new viceroy, was Pharnavaz, an Aetolian sympathetic to the Varkans, favoring them over Aetolian nobility. A theologian, he was fascinated by the Varkan culture and its religion, Armazism.

In 455, Viceroy Pharnavaz orchestrated an anti-Aetolian uprising and restored Kartli statehood, proclaiming himself the King. After this, the armies of Pharnavaz launched several campaigns against Aetolia, the Valyrians and the Galians. His struggle for the independence and unity of the Varkan state did have lasting success, with him easily conquering both Valyria and Gali. The new King of the Varkans married a Kartevlian woman in 457, the first Queen Elene. After Pharnavaz's death in 472, and the short reign of his son Dachi (472–484), the kingdom was facing an immediate threat from the southeast: the Vasaras Empire. They had conquered modern-day Tourkia and Sakalia, were ignoring the primitive Christian kingdoms of Central Illypnia, wanting instead to conquer the rich Dinarides, dominated by Aetolia. Seeing Varkana as the perfect opportunity to surprise Aetolia by the south, Vasaras invaded in 486. Having only mountain passages to protect, Varkans were initially successful against the Vasaras armies, but they lacked something important: they couldn't counter-attack. Varkana's army at the time was an ancient organization similar to the modern concept of militias. They were good at guerrilla warfare, defending a territory using its natural landscape, but couldn't dominate a regular army. The Vasaras armies nevertheless retreated, and concentrated on attacking Aetolia from the east, directly. A Varkan legend tells the tale of a Varkan girl living in the mountains bordering Vasaras, who followed the Vasaras retreat with her siblings, giving their gathered information to the Varkan monarchy. In reality, it is more likely to assume that the Parnavazianni had military scouts, watching the Vasaras army's every movements and reporting back, acting as medieval spies. Realizing the situation, Varkana's Queen Daria I sent a message to the Aetolians, informing them of the Vasaras numbers, rations, encampments, etc. The Aetolians crushed the Vasaras invaders and stopped their expansion towards the Dinarides, marking the beginning of military partnerships between Varkana and Aetolia against Orientals (Vasaras, Parani, Lagashi, etc.) on one side, and Christians on the other. Queen Daria wrote to her Hand, Archil Sabinin: "Should Vasaras conquer Aetolia, we are doomed. Should we be conquered first, and they are doomed. Aetolia is our only possible ally at this time."

f

Parnavazianni legacy

After an intermittent power struggle between the Parnavazianni and the Guramiani, the accession in 987 of Zurab Guramiani, Duke of Varkana and Count of Zestafoni, established on the throne the Guramiani dynasty which was to rule Varkana until the union with Aetolia in 1428.

The Parnavazianni era had seen the gradual emergence of institutions which were to condition Varkana's development for centuries to come: the acknowledgement by the crown of the administrative authority of the realm's nobles within their territories in return for their (sometimes tenuous) loyalty and military support, a phenomenon readily visible in the rise of the Guramiani and foreshadowed to some extent by the Parnavazianni's own rise to power.

The First Guramiani (940–1108)

Giorgi VI and Giorgi VII (1108–1180)

Tamar I (1180–1223)

Latavri II (1226–1270)

Elene III and Elene IV (1270–1314)

Giorgi X and Elene V (1314–1322)

Two Centuries War (1348–1463)

Political aftermath

Economy

Science, medicine and law

Religion

Art and literature

Music

Cuisine and recreation

Government and bureaucracy

Diplomacy

Flags and insignia

Language

Legacy

Varkana has been often identified in Christian Illypnia with intolerance, pagan spirituality, orientalism and exoticism, while the terms "Varkan" and "Varkanism" have been used as bywords for decadence, complex bureaucracy, and repression. Both Northern and Southern Illypnian authors have often perceived Varkana and its neighbor Aetolia as a body of religious, political, and philosophical ideas contrary to those of the West.

This traditional approach towards the Kingdom of Varkana has been partially or wholly disputed and revised by modern studies, which focus on the positive aspects of Varkan culture and legacy. .