Kalinova

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United Kingdom of Kalinova
Калиноƿське Соеднене Коꞃілстƿо
Flag of Kalinova Coat of Arms of Kalinova
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto: Миꞃ і Достаток
"Peace and Abundance"
Anthem: "Калинка"
"Kalina"
File:National anthem of Kalinova.ogg
Location of Kalinova in Adonia
Capital
and largest city
Malynogorod
Official languages Kalinovan
Ethnic groups 82.5% Kalinovan
10.1% Karay
4.2% Noghay
3.2% Other
Demonym Kalinovan
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -  Monarch Kazimir IX
 -  Premier Stanislav Irtyshkin
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Council of Nobles
 -  Lower house Veche
Formation
 -  Duchy of Malynogorod 882 
 -  Duchy of Kalinova 1436 
 -  Kalinovan Empire 1612 
 -  Commonwealth of Kalinova 1642 
 -  United Kingdom of Kalinova 1668 
Area
 -  Total 4,526,519 km2
1,747,698.76 sq mi
Population
 -  2017 estimate 241,263,463
 -  2016 census 235,378,988
 -  Density 52/km2
134.68/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total ₭7.608 trillion (??th)
 -  Per capita ₭32,324 (??th)
Gini (2016)38.7
medium · ??th
HDI (2016)0.901
very high · ??th
QLI (2016)7.48 high
IEF (2016)77.3 Mostly Free
Currency (£) Lipa (KAL)
Time zone TBC
Date format mm.dd.yyyy CE
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .ka

Kalinova (Breislandic: /ˈkalənɒviən/)(Kalinovan: Калиноƿa, Kalynova), officially the United Kingdom of Kalinova (Kalinovan: Калиноƿське Соеднене Коꞃілстƿо , Kalinovs'ke Soyednene Korilstvo), is a country in south-eastern Illypnia , it borders Breisland to the west, ... . With a total area of over 4 million square kilometers, it is the ... largest country in the world, and with a population of over 235 million, it is also the ... most populated country on Adonia.

The beginnings of Kalinova arose with the arrival of various <Turkic> tribes living in the forests and valleys of the country, engaging primarily in a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. In the 6th century AD, <Slavic> peoples arrived from the north, forcing the <turkics> from the land. Various <Slavic> tribes were settled, primarily in western Kalinova. By the 10th century, these tribes reorganized into trading posts and cities, leading to the rise of merchant and guild classes that dominated the region. In the 9th century, many such settlements in Central Kalinova developed into the League of the Kalii River, a trade federation. The League expanded to include most of modern-day western and central Kalinova by the 15th century. While Malynogorod gradually rose in influence as the center of the League, the Veche attempted to centralize the federation, though inefficiently. In the 17th century, the League was facing many issues, including a bloated bureaucracy, high taxes, a stagnant economy, and an ineffective administration. The League collapsed in 1689 and broke into various city states vying for survival.

In the 18th century, with the Veche attempting to place itself back into a position of power, Radymir Yurevsky became Vozhd of the Veche, placing the Veche as a legislator of a new Kalinovan state. He consolidated power in Malynogorod and gradually integrated the breakaway city states back into control of the Veche, both through diplomatic and military means. After a major conflict with Breisland, Yurevsky garnered the necessary support to officially proclaim a unified Kalinova. After his death, the Veche successfully sought to it to ensure continuation of his reforms to the government system. This fostered stability in Kalinova that lead to a successful recovery of the economy and administration of the country.

In the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began in Kalinova. The population gradually moved into the major cities, especially in the east. By the 20th century Kalinova had one of the largest economies in the world, with Kalinovan products found in markets around the world. By the 1930s Kalinova's military began to revamped as the Great Adonian War raged in Illypnia. After an invasion of Breisland in the latter years of the war, Kalinova contributed to bringing the war to a stalemate that ended the war in an armistice. Kalinova thus established itself as a formidable power and a counterweight to the traditional view that Breisland was an unrestricted hegemonic power. In the latter half of the 20th century, Kalinova played a vital role in humanity's venture to space, sending the first man, Yaroslav Gagrin, to space in 1961. Kalinova also collaborated with Breisland in ... tech advancements ... . Today, Kalinova continues to have a leading role in technological advancements worldwide.

Kalinova is today considered a great power, with potential to rise to the rank of superpower, and with a military and navy capable of expanding influence around the world and a world-class economy wielding great influence over Southern Illypnia and Fosia. Once a nuclear power, domestic pressure and an international agreement led to the destruction of all of Kalinova's nuclear weapons. Closely allied with Breisland and Skade, Kalinova had great influence in the establishment of the Adonian Community. Today, Kalinova is a member of the Adonian Community, the Subuyan Economic Union, ... .

Etymology

The name "Kalinova" comes from the Kalii River which is found in Kalinova. Much of Kalinovan culture is centered around the river. The name "Kalii" itself is unknown, but could be linked to the red vibernum, which in Kalinovan is ‘’kalyna’’. This perhaps comes from the fact that the red vibernum was abundant in the area in which the Kalinovan culture developed, and has even become a national symbol of Kalinova.

A much more popular theory behind the name of Kalinova is that it wasn’t named for the Kalii River but was directly named after the kalyna. The name “Kalinova” is first recorded after the kalyna had already become a popular cultural symbol of the tribal Kalinovans, and so it can be said that the name “Kalinova” took this common trait of the tribes of central Kalinova and named the country “the land of the kalyna”.

In Kalinovan, there exists a distinction between ethnic Kalinovans and Kalinovan nationals. Калиноƿцьи and Калиноƿяни mean “ethnic Kalinovan” and “Kalinovan national”, respectively. This distinction is mainly associated by the suffixes of the two words. In Kalinovan, the suffix “-цьи” denotes the root noun as an adjective while the suffix “-яни” denotes the subject’s origin or home as the root noun. This distinction is not found in Breislandic and the two meanings are designated by Kalinowiener/Kalinowierin and Kalinowischer Staatbürger/Kalinowische Staatbürgerin, respectively, though the former is used to mean both in general use. The Kalinovan language distinction is similar to the distinction between “Volisan” and “Volisanian” in Volisania.

History

Ancient Kalinova

Prehistoric Kalinova was mainly marked by a period of nomadic activity. <culture> from <lel> hunted game in Kalinova, occasionally setting up temporary villages. By the 2nd century before the common era, permanent cities began sprouting along the Kalii River, mostly by the Batukha people, who were most likely <Turkic>. These cities were walled and even traded with other regions, especially ... and ... . The Batukhas developed a sophisticated civilization, with their own unique art and writing style. For unknown reasons, though speculated to be due to drought or famine, these cities were abandoned and many of those who survived calamity returned to a nomadic lifestyle. Before the 6th century of the common era, Kalinova was mostly inhabited by <culture> from <lel>, but most were expelled by invading Slavs from the north. By the 8th century, the culture makeup of Kalinova was mostly homogeneous, especially in the west.

Tribal Kalinova

After the Slavic invasion of Kalinova during the 6th century, the <Turkic> peoples of Kalinova were expelled, and many Slavs roamed through the ruins of the cities previously abandoned by the Butakha people. For over two centuries, most of these Slavs dwelled in tribes, mostly along the major bodies of water in the western half of modern-day Kalinova. By the 9th century, many tribes developed into cities and then city states. Malynogorod, which sprung at the head of the Kaliy River at Zeleno Lake, grew into prominence due to its strategic location among various trade routes running through the South Illypnian Plain. Soon, the Duchy of Malynogorod was established as the first precursor to the Kalinovan nation.

While first projecting power through trade and resources, Malynogorod soon became a military power hub, and the Duchy began subjugating neighboring city states. This increased the power and influence of the city even more, and within a few centuries, the Duchy of Malynogorod became the most powerful state in the region.

After the turn of the 10th century, Breislandic missionaries began attempting to spread Christianity to the Kalinovan people. Few saw success, as many missionaries were denounced by the priests of Rodnovirie. In the breakout of the Two Centuries War, the Kalinovans supported the Breislandic Empire in exchange for decreased missionary activity. This decreased activity allowed a restructuring of the Rodnovirie faith. In 1411, priests from around the region met at the Council of Rozdil to reform the religion. Many brought notable Christian features into the Rodnovirie fold, especially a Holy Text, the idea of an afterlife, and a religious hierarchy centered on the Archpriest of Malynogorod, the spiritual leader of the Rodnovirians. The Council standardized the religion, and it was this that allowed for the polytheistic religion to be able to resist efforts of the Christian missionaries to convert Kalinova. The influence of Malynogorod also allowed the Duchy to centralize its power on the region.

Duchy of Kalinova

By the 16th century as the Two Centuries War came to a close, the Duchy of Malynogorod, considerably more centralized, was in a position where the Duke of Malyonogorod ... saw himself as the unifier of the Slavs of the South Illypnian Plain. In 1436, he proclaimed himself the Duke of Kalinova, a name that by that time became widely used by both Kalinovans and outsiders, especially in Breisland. The Duchy of Kalinova continued the trade and military prowess of the growing Duchy of Malynogorod, and soon even Breislandic states became wary of Kalinovan threats. The Breiso-Kalinovan Wars managed to weaken Kalinova to the point where Kalinova no longer posed a threat to their western neighbors, though modern day scholars debate whether this was because of a sense of inferiority before the Breislandic people, or simply a shift in focus toward to weaker states and tribes in the south and east. Regardless, the Duchy of Kalinova saw an increased presence in the east, and many traders managed to extend their reach to southern Fosia during the summer years when the <Southern Sea> thawed. The expansion of trade led to a golden age in Kalinova, where economic prosperity, coupled with a sense of national unity and pride led to a stable, satisfied populace.

Depiction of medieval Malynogorod

Kalinovan Empire

The increased wealth of the Duchy of Kalinova meant that the Duchy could afford to wage wars against the tribes and city states in the south and east. The expansion of Kalinova illustrated the progress of the Kalinovan state from a nation-state to an imperialistic great power. In 1612, Yaroslav III crowned himself Emperor of Kalinova upon the death of his father. As Emperor, ... became a patron of the arts during the Kalinovan Renaissance\. Because of this intense support for the progression of art in Kalinova, architects and artists were allowed to freely experiment with various styles, many examples of which survive to this day.

However, the lavish spending of the Emperor and his son, combined with the pressure of the flood of Christian missionaries into Kalinova from Breisland, destabilized Kalinova and stirred discontent among the population. The major blow to this was when Yaroslav IV himself converted to Zamarran Catholicism. When he attempted to convert the population of Kalinova by force, the people fought back, and the nobility of the Kalinovan Empire rose their arms against the Emperor and his armies, demanding representation and power alongside the Emperor's. This led to the Great Turmoil.

The Great Turmoil

Radymir Yurevsky, the Gubernator of the Commonwealth of Kalinova

The initial outbreaks of hostilities between the forces loyal to the Emperor and those of the nobles occurred outside of the Kalinovan Kremlin, when the Emperor fled for his life to the Imperially-loyal Molinsk. There, Yaroslav IV spent his time in personal study, mostly giving his power to his advisors. Many considered this to be a major blow to the morale of the Imperial Forces, especially toward the end of the conflict. Radymir Yurevsky, a noble from outside of Lviv, soon became the head of the Noble Forces after the Council of Lviv. He commanded the armies of the nobles and, within a few years, was able to turn the tide against the Imperial Forces. On June 5th, 1642, the Imperial Forces capitulated. The next day, Yurevsky usurped the crown of the Kalinovan Empire.

As the Great Turmoil raged across Kalinova, many violent outbreaks occurred in cities and villages with significant Christian populations. While not directly supported by Yurevsky, many Christians fled or were killed as a result of the strong animosity against them. This mostly happened in north eastern Kalinova, where Molinsk was the center of the Christian spread into Kalinova. When Breisland threatened to invade Kalinova, Yurevsky called for a halt of hostilities against the Christians. In his view, the civil war was not about religion, but about the tyranny of the Emperor. Nevertheless, this warning came too late, as the Christian population was almost obliterated from Kalinova.

During his reign, Yurevsky passed numerous reforms. He provided for the return of the monarchy after his death, but also established a parliament with greater powers than the monarch to ensure that the monarch does not behave arbitrarily. He drafted a constitution in 1656, which was approved by his parliament. This constitution ensured rights for Kalinovan citizens, which were defined rather marginally as simply Kalinovan landlords. Additionally, it enforced Yurevsky's vision of a perfect Kalinovan government. During the Commonwealth years, Kalinova was at a standstill, with little strides in culture or wealth. The economy stagnated, even noticably failing during some years. However, the success of Yurevsky's reformation of the Kalinovan government, many aspects of which last to this very day, earns him the position of one of the greatest Kalinovans in history. When Yurevsky died on October 20th, 1668, Yaroslav V, Yaroslav IV's great nephew, ascended to the throne to establish the United Kingdom of Kalinova.

Post-Turmoil

The aftermath of Yurevsky's death resulted in a period of uncertainty, especially in the new Parliament's role in the new Kalinovan government. Yurevsky's primary reforms included the supremacy of the Parliament over the monarch, and wrote a constitution to dictate the boundaries of the powers of each. However, the constitution soon became an irrelevent document, and Parliament and Yaroslav V frequently had disagreements over each other's power. Nevertheless, Yaroslav V did not attempt to strip Parliament of its power. Parliament itself experienced frequent power shifts, since its original conception was as a unicameral legislature, and the nobles, previously part of the Council of Nobles before the Commonwealth years, and the Veche, a collection of elected representatives of the people of Kalinova before the Commonwealth years, were grouped into a single house. Quarrels occurred regularly, and between 1688 and 1704 did not meet at all. In 1704, 8 year old Konstantin I inherited the Kalinovan thrown after the death of his uncle, Yaroslav V, who was childless, and Parliament met to welcome the new Tsar and to act as the young Tsar's regent.

The regency of the Parliament during Konstatin I proved to demonstrate the wide issues of Parliament and its ability to project power. With the constitution completely disregarded, Parliament began infringing on the rights of its constituents, cracking down on critical newspapers and raising taxes arbitrarily that were exploited by many Parliament members. In 1708, the Compromise of 1708 ended the strife between the Council of Nobles and the Veche by reorganizing Parliament as a bicameral legislative body, with the Veche as the lower house representing the people of Kalinova, who were elected, while the Council of Nobles was the upper house, composed primarily of nobles who inherited their position on the council. The compromise effectively ended the disorganized nature of the body and made legislation much more efficient and orderly.

In 1714, Konstantin I was coronated, and effectively took over his position as Tsar. By this time, Konstantin was aware of the arbitrary nature of Parliament but was powerless from making any effective reform. In 1721, the Act of Exclusion was presented by members of Parliament that were aware of Konstantin's critical view of Parliament and sought to dethrone him and place his brother, Yaroslav, on the path toward becoming his replacement. 51 out of the 100 members of the Council of Nobles approved of this provision, while 182 of the 350 members of the Veche also approved. However, Konstantin refused to cede the throne, declaring to Parliament of his disappointment that Parliament was overstepping its power arbitrarily and sent soldiers to occupy Parliament and forcibly close Parliament in December 1721. In January, Konstantin allowed Parliament to meet again, but he insisted on sitting in during the meetings. Tensions rose until both Konstantin and his supporters opposed the members of Parliament protesting his rule. Tensions lasted for eleven months until 1722, when the Convention of 1722 was convened, and the two parties began drafting a compromise. Since Konstantin had a wider follower base in the military and the public, he gained the upper hand, but he was still lenient to his opposers. The Convention reintroduced the Constitution with expanded rights that were to be respected by the government, and a new branch composed of a supreme court that would represent the Constitution and ensure all future laws and actions of government officials were in accordance with the Constitution, which was to be the highest power in the Kalinovan government. Court judges were to be composed of an odd number to prevent stalemates and were to be politically independent while highly educated. Meanwhile, Konstantin allowed for Parliament to retain its privilege of lawmaking, provided they are in accordance with the Constitution and court mandates while the monarch approved of any laws. Parliament was also slated to produce a Code of Conduct that would codify all procedures of Parliamentary meetings.

In 1724, Konstantin's younger sister and close friend, Nadezhda, was married to the Prince of Rete of Volisania, and spread the ideals of the Kalinovan governmental reforms to Volisania, which helped influence the course of the Volisanian Revolution. With the Turmoil over and Kalinova stabilizing, the country was able to reassert itself onto the world stage, normalizing relations with its neighbors. With Nadezhda in Volisania, Kalinova also established good relations with Volisania and, by extension, with the countries of the Mesogean Sea. In terms of geostrategical moves, Konstantin I looked to the northern countries in an attempt to secure a warm water port for Kalinova in order to integrate Kalinova into the increasingly globalizing economy. The 1745 Siege of <> was won by Kalinovan soldiers, and Konstantin manage to integrate <> and <> into the Kalinovan sphere of influence and obtained <> as a Kalinovan military, naval, and economic base, allowing for projecting Kalinovan power into the Paran Sea.

Early Modern Era

The arrival of the 1750s saw a renewed tension with Breisland, a country increasingly becoming the most powerful great power. While Breisland remained focused on its major colonial empire and position in Fosia, Kalinovans continued to cause trouble for Breisland. Various border skirmishes occurred that culminated into the Kalino-Breislandic War of 1756 that resulted in a Breislandic victory against Kalinova. While not devastating to either countries, the Treaty of Molinsk guaranteed free access of Breislandic merchants in Kalinova and an end to government - sanctioned border skirmishes, which involved a finalization to the border between Kalinova and Breisland.

Kalinovan stability, favorable laws concerning entrepreneurship and a hands-off economic policy, increased investment by Breisland, and Kalinovan access to the global market through Port <> saw a large expansion of the Kalinovan economy, especially as the First Industrial Revolution came into full force in Breisland. By the 1820s, Kalinova saw its own expansion of steam powered factories, but it wasn’t until the 1850s that Kalinova saw the beginning of full industrialization of its economy. Between 1850 and 1890, Kalinova’s economical output increased threefold, especially with the construction of railways connecting major population centers in Kalinova and the beginning of full nationalization of the Kalinovan economy. The completion of the Trans Subuyan Railway in 1862 connected east Kalinova with west Kalinova, and the growth of east Kalinovan economic centers, focused on the processing of the vast resources of east Kalinova. By the turn of the 20th century, Kalinova’s economy was already among the top 5 economies on Adonia.

However, the increased economic prosperity also led to social instability as a result of exponential population growth and increased wealth inequality. This led to the rise of socialist movements, especially the Soednena Volya, the “United Will”, which was initially a cooperative union of socialist and more radical communist elements. The group later split into smaller groups focused on particular doctrines of socialism and communism. Increased activism of these groups succeeded in influencing the composition of Parliament in the 1892 and 1896 Veche elections. This led to the passing of laws guaranteeing worker’s rights, particularly safety regulations, a higher minimum wage, and a right to unionize and protest. Many nevertheless viewed this as merely scratching the surface of Kalinova’s social problems, and many socialist thinkers continued to formulate ideas for a fully socialist, or even communist, Kalinova.

Such movements saw particular support by the emerging middle class and especially the lower classes. While many thinkers such as Lev Tolsky believed in bringing a full communist revolution to Kalinova, Vladimir Lenin emerged as a supporter of a hybrid form of socialism tailored specifically to the circumstances of Kalinova. He denounced Tolskyy and his supporters as attempting to force foreign ideals onto Kalinova, but failed to find an interpretation of <Marxism> that worked best for Kalinova. Lenin’s ideology soon became known as socialist federalism, which stressed a form of planned economy that is decentralized, as opposed to central economic planning, which would be nearly impossible given the vast area and population of Kalinova. While Kalinova never saw his ideas implemented fully, the Kalinovan Veche began to give rights to smaller federal entities to project economic control, as opposed to having it completely under the influence of the central government. It proved to be a major success among the population, though with time, especially after the Adonian Depression, such regulation gradually minimized itself. Nevertheless, Lenin’s activism left a huge mark on Kalinova’s economic policy and the country’s history.

Great Adonian War


Post War

After the end of the Great Adonian War, <conservative> Vlodymir Garkyn became Premier, and instituted an isolationist policy that lasted until his loss to Vadim Perlonik in 1966. During this period, Kalinova limited its trade and diplomatic relations with other nations. When the Great Adonian Depression began in 1949, its effect on Kalinova was more limited than in other areas, and Kalinova's peak unemployment rate was at 12%, in 1954. Garkyn's policy making focused on the creation of jobs, especially in the agricultural and service sectors, a period known as the Relievement Period. Garkyn was able to radically improve Kalinova's economy in the aftermath of the war in spite of the global economic depression.

In 1966, after Perlonik's transition to power, <> operatives planted bombs in various buildings in Cherniv, killing over 178 people, and injuring almost 2,500. <>'s fault was immediately obvious after the discovery of five undetonated bombs in the following three days after the explosions. These bombs were almost exclusively used by <>, so when the Kalinovan representative in the Adonian Community openly accused the <> representative, he denied the accusation. However, within hours, twenty <> citizens began indiscriminately shooting civilians in Cherniv's central square bearing <> emblems, but were incapacitated almost immediately, resulting in 26 deaths and 67 injuries. Perlonik immediately sent an ultimatum to <> demanding reparations for the attacks, but received no response. After an impartial investigation by the Adonian Community, <> was found to be responsible, and enforced Perlonik's demands.

The rising approval rating in the aftermath of the situation gave Perlonik the ability to sign into law various social reforms, especially in the allocation of increased funds to the United Health Service and the Education Association. Gorkyn and Perlonik continue to be considered among the best Premiers in Kalinovan history, despite their ideological differences.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Kalinova's service sector was increased, and the standard of living improved significantly. By the 1990s, Kalinova's economy was one of the top 5 on Adonia.

Geography

Kalinova borders Breisland to the west... One of the largest nations on Adonia, Kalinova has a land area of over 4 million square kilometers.

While Kalinova is mostly flat, with the South Illypnian Plain stretching across most of the country, central Kalinova is much more hilly, with mountains in the north. Kalinova's highest point is at 2,760 meters, Mount Korchyk, while it's lower point is in Lake Zeleny, whose seabed is nearly 200 meters below average sea level.

Fauna

Flora

Climate

Dominated by a temperate climate, most of Kalinova is in the ... . Most of Kalinova is covered by dense forest, with pinewood forests dominating in the south and eastern regions.

Government and politics

Governance

The government of the United Kingdom of Kalinova is officially a Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The official name of Kalinova implies a collection of kingdoms, the entity is treated effectively as an empire, and the head of state’s title is Tsar, derived from the Vasarayan word "Shah", which underwent several consonantal shifts to become "Tsar" in Kalinovan. While the Tsar of Kalinova is the head of state, the Premier of Kalinova is the head of government. Officially, there are three branches of government in Kalinova:

  • The Executive Branch of Kalinova consists of the Tsar as head of state. All laws passed by Parliament must be signed by the Tsar in order to become law. Additionally, all forms of bureaucracy, such as the United Health Service and the United Transportation System fall under the executive branch. The Tsar has constitutional authority to be able to appoint heads of these departments, although the Parliament also has this right. Although the Tsar used to have absolute power, his power is checked by the legislative branch of Kalinova.
  • The Legislative Branch of Kalinova consists primarily of the Parliament of Kalinova. The Parliament is bicameral, with the Veche and the Council of Nobles, with 450 and 115 seats, respectively. Most laws must be go through the Parliament before it can become law, which is ultimately approved by the Tsar. The Premier of Kalinova and his cabinet are officially considered part of the legislative branch, as he is appointed by Parliament, but, in power, can be considered part of the executive branch, with the Premier acting as an adviser of the Tsar, and sometimes can even override certain powers of the Tsar.
  • The Judicial Branch consists mainly of the Supreme Court of Kalinova and lower courts in Kalinova's federalist system. The main power of the Supreme Court is to ensure that laws and actions of the government abide to the Constitution.

Parliamentary elections in Kalinova occur every 4 years, when the people of Kalinova vote for a representative in the Veche, with every oblast having a proportional amount of seats in the Veche depending on population. Since the Premier is usually the head of the party they are a member of, the party with the most amount of seats accede their head to become Premier, thus making the Premier's election indirect. While the House of Nobles is mainly composed of appointed ministers, there have been debates over having members be elected.

Administrative divisions

Kalinova is split into three kingdoms: Kalinova, Karay, and Noghey. These kingdoms are split into oblasts, oblasts are split into raions, and raions are split into municipal districts. Karay and Noghey do not have oblasts due to their small size, themselves having comparable land areas to oblasts in the Kingdom of Kalinova.

Foreign Relations

Military

Economy

Kalinova's mixed economy is highly developed and industrialized, with large amounts of natural resources, particularly coal and oil, and is among the biggest exporters of manufactured good on Adonia. Since the 1980s, Kalinova's economy has been improving at a rate of, on average, 3.1%. This is mostly as a result of friendly relations with Breisland, the main gateway to the global market for Kalinovan goods, and of the Central Skade Canal which was completed in 1959, allowing Kalinovan merchant ships easier access to the global market, which was hampered due to ice packs in the winter.

Currently, Kalinova is ranked as the third largest economy on Adonia, after Breisland and Zong, in terms of gross domestic product (purchasing power parity), and its gross domestic product per capita is ranked 20th. This makes Kalinova's economy among the most influential in the world, making it a major gateway between the Illypnian and Fosian markets, in part thanks to Kalinova's geographical position and the Kalinovan-Zong built Transfosian Railway which connects Malynogorod and Huwei, completed in 1878. The railway has since been upgraded to include 3 additional parallel lines to accommodate high volume trade and is in the works of possibly becoming a Maglev railway and extended to Koblenz.

A Vrutik Bereza. Kalinova's large automotive industry is one of the largest in the world, as it is the 4th largest exporter of automobiles.

The service sector of Kalinova accounts for about 76.3% of all employed individuals, while the manufacturing and agricultural sectors account for 22.2% and 1.5%, respectively. Kalinova's service sector is among the largest in the world, and has a highly influential financial sector that helps extend Kalinovan influence world wide, especially in developing nations where Kalinovan investments are greatest. Many such companies, such as Gorovkin Financial and KUP Inc employ thousands of white-collar workers worldwide.

The automotive industry in Kalinova accounts for the 4th largest production of automobiles by volume among the countries of the world, with Vrutik and ZAV Group dominating the industry in Kalinova. Kalinovan automobiles are known to be reliable and luxurious, and have been manufactured for use by numerous governments around the world. The two mentioned groups are also undergoing expansion by opening factories in many countries in an attempt to expand their markets.

Kalinova's natural resources account for 23.4% of all Kalinova's exports. Namely, the country's oil and natural gas reserves allow it to be a net exporter, with [[Breisland] being the largest importer of Kalinova's fossil fuels. Agricultural and lumber production are also major contributors to Kalinova's exports, with the country's vast land and forests providing the means to make this possible. Kalinova is currently the largest exporter of wood products and is the second largest wheat exporter. Additionally, Kalinova's production of aluminum, titanium, copper, zinc, and other metals is also among the top in the world and provides Kalinova the means to manufacture finished goods without much importation of raw materials.

The unemployment rate in Kalinova is currently 5.6% and falling while 15.4% live below the national poverty line of $6,500 for an individual or $13,400 for a family of four. Kalinovan wealth as a whole is only moderately concentrated within the top 10% of income earners, which claims 43.1% of all income earned. The distribution of wealth has become increasingly less equal since Kalinova's wean off socialist based policies, a process that began in the 1970s. In that same time, however, Kalinova has seen its greatest economic growth in the nation's history.

Transports

Demographics

Population

According to the 2016 census, Kalinova has a population of over 235 million people, making it the ... most populated country on Adonia. Of the three constituent countries of the United Kingdom, Kalinova has, by far, the largest population, with well over 190 million. The next largest is the Kingdom of Karay, with over 25 million people, and then the Kingdom of Nogay, with just under 10 million. Between 2000 and 2010, the population increased by 3.2%, mostly as a result of immigration from ... . 51% of Kalinovans are born female, wile 49% are born male. However, according to the same census, 4.5% of Kalinovans reported to be either homosexual, bisexual, or transgender. Most people of the LGBT community live in or near the vicinity of Malynogorod or other major cities.

Kalinova has a highly urbanized population, with most settling in cities during the Industrial Revolution. While a decent portion of the population still lives in rural areas, as much as 25%, the majority of the demographics belong to large urban centers. Urbanization continues to increase as the service sector of Kalinova expands, as more white-collar and blue-collar jobs become available in major urban centers.

Ethnicity and Language

Kalinova's ethnic makeup is generally homogeneous, with most ethnic minorities expelled during the initial expansion of the nation. However, toward the north, the majority of the population is made up of <Turkic> people, especially ... . Over 90% of Kalinova's population is ethnically Kalinovan, although some changes exist between certain regions. Kalinovan exists as a dialect continuum, where the most common dialect, known as Standard Kalinovan, is generally spoken in the southwestern areas of the country, including the capital, Malynogorod. In the northwest, the Molinsk Dialect is more popular. The eastern half of the country speaks the Subuyan Dialect. Other minority ethnic groups of significance include Breislandics, <estonians>, <latvian>, and <finns>.

While the people of the Kingdoms of Karay and Noghey do not speak Kalinovan as a first language (though around 85% speak it as a second or third language), Kalinovan remains the official language of Kalinova and is used in administrative work and all domestic affairs. In Karay and Noghey, their respective languages are used domestically, guaranteed by their separate constitutions, though working knowledge of Kalinovan is still mandatory for government workers.

Religion

While Kalinova has no official religion, Rodnovirie remains the most practiced among Kalinovans, with insignificant pockets of Zamarran Catholicism in major urban centers, especially in Molinsk. Rodnovirie is a direct descendant of the prehistoric religion of the Slavs that over time developed into a sophisticated, standardized belief system. In contrast with other major religions, Rodnovirie supports and upholds critical thought and analysis over all else, and in modern-days this resulted in a view that the pantheon of Rodnovirien gods are merely symbolic, representative of good and bad virtues among human beings. Nevertheless, the comprehensive nature of the religion remains a way of life for many Kalinovans to this day.

Due to the influence of Breislandic missionaries in Kalinova, Rodnovirie, and in effect Kalinovan society, saw major influences by Christianity. Most notably, the use of standardized religious texts and the significance of death and its aftermath. As a result, Christianity was limited in its spread in Kalinova, something other polytheistic religions were not able to do, especially in Mesogea. This resilience proves to be a major source of pride among Kalinovans and accounts for the continued popularity of the religion.

While most Kalinovans follow Rodnovirie, a sizeable percentage of Kalinovans are atheists and/or agnostic. Kalinovan society has largely proven to be tolerant and accepting of irreligion, which is likely a result of the country's history with religious turmoil. This means that Kalinova is largely adherent to the idea of the separation of church and state, even though Rodnovirie is officially regarded as the state religion of Kalinova. However, this is the only direct reference to religion in the Kalinovan constitution, and the same document supports the right to freedom of religion. 7 of the last 10 Premiers have been self-proclaimed atheists and/or agnostics, significantly higher than the percentage of the same within the Kalinovan population.

Health

According to the Constitution of Kalinova, universal healthcare is a right of the Kalinovan citizen. As a result of the end of the Great Turmoil, Parliament issued the Act of the Physicians, which mandated that every town of greater than 5,000 citizens must have at least one physician. Later, the Act was amended to include all settlements. Today, the United Health Service provides basic healthcare for all Kalinovan citizens and assigns doctors to settlements around the country. Officially, Kalinova has more physicians, hospitals, and health care workers than almost any other country in the world on a per capita basis. However, more advanced care remains officially privatized, though subsidized by the UHS. Nevertheless, even the most advanced care is mostly accessible to most Kalinovan citizens.

The United Health Service has the world's largest fleets of ambulances.

Kalinova's healthcare system is ranked among the top five in the world, and upwards of 10% of the nation's gross domestic product is dedicated to the United Health Service. A result of this is that the average life expectancy is around 83.4, among the highest in the world. A nation-wide campaign during the latter half of the twentieth century against the use of drugs and alcohol drastically reduced the number of drug-related deaths. In an effort to combat the use of illicit drugs, addicts are sent to rehabilitation centers, and most patients manage to free themselves from their harmful addictions. Marijuana is officially legal for medicinal use, but illegal for recreational use. However, punishment for the illegal use of marijuana is no longer enforced. There is an on-going debate in Kalinovan politics about legalizing the recreational use of marijuana.

Education

King's College, one of the constituent colleges of the University of Rozdil.

The educational system in Kalinova is highly regarded. The University of Rozdil is among the top universities in the world. Along with having a sizable network of public universities and trade schools, most tertiary education students study at private universities. As of the Education Act of 1968, Kalinovan public schools are completely subsidized, being effectively free for Kalinovan citizens. Additionally, funds are allocated for subsidizing certain private universities, as well.

Mandatory public education had its beginnings in the 1820s, and today a Kalinovan child must attend school for 13 years by law, except in the most extreme cases. Most children begin education at age 5 and finish at age 18. Certain localities allow children to finish public education at age 16 to attend preparatory schools or to attend trade schools. 16.4% of Kalinovan primary and secondary students attend private schools, with the percentage being higher for primary school students. Only 1.8% are homeschooled.

The tradition of public education dates back to the early years of Kalinova, in which the principles of education, particularly reading and writing, were highly valued in the Rodnovirie religion. This accounted for Kalinova historically ranking high in terms of literacy rates. This tradition also has marked Kalinova at 3rd place in terms of per student spending worldwide, leaving the country at 4th place on the Education Index.

Culture

Architecture

Art

Cuisine

Music

Literature

Philosophy

Some of the world's greatest philosophers were either Kalinovan or lived in Kalinova for some time in their lives. Some of the most famous Kalinovan philosophers include Yonik Kluchin, whose political philosophy helped shape the politics of many countries in modern-day Adonia, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, who argued against the nihilist ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche at the time, and Vladimir Lenin, Kalinova's foremost political philosopher and activist of the 20th century.

Vladimir Lenin is Kalinova's most prominent political philosophe, having developed the idea of socialist federalism, an idea that continues to influence Kalinovan politics to this day.

Society

Sports

Many sport games, in particularly football, are an integral part of modern Kalinovan culture. Football was introduced to Kalinova in <> from <> and Kalinova entered its first national football team into the <> in <>. The Kalinovan Football League is the national football conference, with most major cities in Kalinova hosting their own football clubs. The finals of every season are among the most watched televised events in Kalinova.

Besides football, Kalinova also hosts a competitive national ice hockey team. The Kalinovan Hockey League is also a widely watched sports conference in Kalinova. Other major sports include gymnastics, wrestling, tennis, and basketball, in no particular order.

As a whole, Kalinovan athletes are world class, and can be found in many football clubs and hockey teams worldwide. Kalinova also fares well during the Olympics, both summer and winter, with the last Olympics in Kalinova being hosted in <> in <>. Kalinova is set to host the upcoming <> in <>.