Difference between revisions of "Kaftia"

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===Prehistory===
 
===Prehistory===
The domestication of cattle in Kaftia preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures. It is speculated that by 6000 BC, cattle were already domesticated in Central Kaftia. In the "DESERT" complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat. In the year 4000 BC, the climate of the "DESERT" started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace. This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of South Kaftia.
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The domestication of cattle in Kaftia preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures. It is speculated that by 6000 BC, cattle were already domesticated in Central Kaftia. In the [[Hamada]] complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat. In the year 4000 BC, the climate of the [[Hamada]] started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace. This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of South Kaftia.
  
By the first millennium BC, iron-working had been introduced in Southern Kaftia and quickly spread across the Desert into the northern parts of Kaftia, and by 500 BC, metalworking began to become commonplace in Southwest Kaftia. Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in many areas of Southern Kaftia, although other regions didn't begin iron-working until the early centuries AD.
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By the first millennium BC, iron-working had been introduced in Southern Kaftia and quickly spread across the Hamada into the northern parts of Kaftia, and by 500 BC, metalworking began to become commonplace in Southwest Kaftia. Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in many areas of Southern Kaftia, although other regions didn't begin iron-working until the early centuries AD.
  
 
===Early civilizations===
 
===Early civilizations===
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===18th and 19th centuries===
 
===18th and 19th centuries===
Pre-colonial Kaftia possessed perhaps as many as 10,000 different states and polities characterized by many different sorts of political organization and rule. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of northern Kaftia; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, northern, and western Kaftia; heavily structured clan groups in southeast Kaftia; the large Sahelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, and Igbo people in southwest Kaftia; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of northeast Kaftia.
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Pre-colonial Kaftia possessed perhaps as many as 10,000 different states and polities characterized by many different sorts of political organization and rule. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people of northern Kaftia; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, northern, and western Kaftia; heavily structured clan groups in southeast Kaftia; the large Hamelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, and Igbo people in southwest Kaftia; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of northeast Kaftia.
  
By the ninth century, a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the northern-DESERT savannah from the western regions. The most powerful of these states were Ghana, Gao, and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. Ghana declined in the eleventh century, but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of "area" in the thirteenth century. Much of the eastern coast of Kaftia was dominated by Islam, while the more developed southwest was heavily influenced by Illypnian Christians.
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By the ninth century, a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the northern-Hamada savannah from the western regions. The most powerful of these states were Ghana, Gao, and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. Ghana declined in the eleventh century, but was succeeded by the Mali Empire which consolidated much of "area" in the thirteenth century. Much of the eastern coast of Kaftia was dominated by Islam, while the more developed southwest was heavily influenced by Illypnian Christians.
  
 
In the forested regions of the south, independent kingdoms grew up with little influence from the Muslim east. The Kingdom of Nri was established around the ninth century and was one of the first. It is also one of the oldest kingdoms in present-day "NAME" and was ruled by the Eze Nri. The Nri kingdom is famous for its elaborate bronzes, found at the town of Igbo-Ukwu. The bronzes have been dated from as far back as the ninth century.
 
In the forested regions of the south, independent kingdoms grew up with little influence from the Muslim east. The Kingdom of Nri was established around the ninth century and was one of the first. It is also one of the oldest kingdoms in present-day "NAME" and was ruled by the Eze Nri. The Nri kingdom is famous for its elaborate bronzes, found at the town of Igbo-Ukwu. The bronzes have been dated from as far back as the ninth century.
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The Kingdom of Ife, historically the first of these Yoruba city-states or kingdoms, established government under a priestly oba ('king' or 'ruler' in the Yoruba language), called the Ooni of Ife. Ife was noted as a major religious and cultural center in southern Kaftia, and for its unique naturalistic tradition of bronze sculpture. The Ife model of government was adapted at the Oyo Empire, where its obas or kings, called the Alaafins of Oyo, once controlled a large number of other Yoruba and non-Yoruba city-states and kingdoms; the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey was one of the non-Yoruba domains under Oyo control.
 
The Kingdom of Ife, historically the first of these Yoruba city-states or kingdoms, established government under a priestly oba ('king' or 'ruler' in the Yoruba language), called the Ooni of Ife. Ife was noted as a major religious and cultural center in southern Kaftia, and for its unique naturalistic tradition of bronze sculpture. The Ife model of government was adapted at the Oyo Empire, where its obas or kings, called the Alaafins of Oyo, once controlled a large number of other Yoruba and non-Yoruba city-states and kingdoms; the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey was one of the non-Yoruba domains under Oyo control.
  
The Almoravids were a Berber dynasty from the Desert that spread over a wide area of central Kaftia during the eleventh century. Following the breakup of Mali, a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464–1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the sub-DESERT trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askia Mohammad I (1493–1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought to Gao Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Kaftian Muslim scholarship. By the eleventh century, some Hausa states – such as Kano, jigawa, Katsina, and Gobir – had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicing caravans, and the manufacture of goods. Until the fifteenth century, these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the south.
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The Almoravids were a Berber dynasty from the Hamada that spread over a wide area of central Kaftia during the eleventh century. Following the breakup of Mali, a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464–1492) founded the Songhai Empire in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan and took control of the sub-DESERT trade. Sonni Ali seized Timbuktu in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim merchants. His successor Askia Mohammad I (1493–1528) made Islam the official religion, built mosques, and brought to Gao Muslim scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Kaftian Muslim scholarship. By the eleventh century, some Hausa states – such as Kano, jigawa, Katsina, and Gobir – had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicing caravans, and the manufacture of goods. Until the fifteenth century, these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the south.
  
 
===Height of slave trade===  
 
===Height of slave trade===  

Latest revision as of 22:24, 15 January 2020

Kaftia
220px
Area30,221,532 km2 (11,668,599 sq mi)[n] (2nd)
Population1.1 billion[n] (2013; 2nd)
Pop. density36.4/km2 (94/sq mi) (2nd)
DemonymKaftian
Countries~54 countries (and ~2 with limited recognition)
Dependencies7 dependencies
Languages~225 languages
Time zonesUTC to UTC+5
Internet TLD.kaftia
Largest cities

Kaftia is Adonia's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

Etymology

The name Kaftia comes from Aetolian kafto (καυτό) meaning "hot".

History

Geography

Climate

Geology

Biodiversity

Political geography

Integration

Economy

Transport

Demographics

Language

Religion

Culture

See also