Difference between revisions of "Health in Varkana"

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'''Health in Varkana''' refers to the overall health of the population of [[Varkana]]. Average life expectancy in Varkana at birth was 78 years in 2018 according to the [[Adonian Community]]. The life expectancy for women was 81.2 while it was 74.7 for men. Infant mortality rate was 2.5 in 2016, while under-five infant mortality was 2.3 in the same year, the second lowest in the [[MOZ]]. Varkana's fertility rate in 2016 stood at 2.6 children born per woman.
  
 
==Health issues==
 
==Health issues==
 
===Alcohol===
 
===Alcohol===
According to the [[Adonian Community]], Varkans rank 1st in alcohol consumption over all (2016) with over 16.8 liters per capita per year. According to Mesogean data, it ranks 3rd in beer consumption, 2nd in wine consumption, and 5th in spirits consumption per capita (2016).  
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Alcohol plays an integral part of Varkan culture. Alcohol plays a role in celebrations, a variety of social activities, relaxation, as a generator of tax revenue and as a major source of employment and exports. According to the [[Adonian Community]], Varkans rank 1st in alcohol consumption in the [[MOZ]] (2016). According to Mesogean data, it ranks #th in beer consumption, #th in wine consumption, and #th in spirits consumption per capita (2016). Despite recent improvements, alcoholism is still a major problem in Varkana. Varkans drank 13.8 litres of pure alcohol per capita in 2016; in the same year alcohol consumption took the form of 40% wine, 45% beer and 14% spirits.
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The driving forces behind Varkana's drinking culture are derived from social customs, habits, publicized images and normality. These factors can be enhanced by influences related to the social, physical and economic availability of alcohol. This is driven by marketing and promotion, cost, accessibility and age restrictions. 16 is the legal age at which someone may purchase alcohol. Binge drinking is not common outside of 15-25 age group, and Varkans prefer to drink slowly.  
  
 
===Smoking===
 
===Smoking===
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Smoking in Varkana was at the highest prevalence rate of tobacco consumption (more than 40%) in the [[MOZ]] in 2016. Cigarette consumption in Varkana is just slightly above the global average in overall terms at 1,084.7 cigarettes per capita per year, but prevalence is high at 43.2%, ranking third in Adonia. This indicates a large quantity of Varkans smoke, but they do not smoke a lot of cigarettes compared to other populations.
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According to a survey published by the Government of Varkana in 2019, 57% of Varkans are "active or passive smokers" and only 31% of Varkans have never smoked in their life, the smallest percentage in the MOZ. The survey's data include marijuana smoking as well as e-cigarettes and vaping. Smoking was restricted in Varkana since the 1970s, with a ban in public transit and restaurants, cafés etc. had to provide smoking and non-smoking sections. A much stronger smoking ban was introduced in 2004. Smoking in enclosed public places such as offices, schools, government buildings and restaurants became strictly prohibited.
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===Drug use===
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{{Main|Drug policy of Varkana}}
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Varkana is one of few countries that never criminalized the possession of drugs for personal use. Since 1967, the law establishes no quantity limits, leaving it to the judge's discretion to determine whether the intent was personal use. Once it is determined by the judge that the amount in possession was meant for personal use, there are no sanctions. Cannabis sale and cultivation was fully legalized in 2001 and is the most commonly used drug. Varkana had the highest annual prevalence of cannabis use of any country in Adonia in 2018 according to the [[Adonian Community]]. It means 52.7% of Varkans aged 16–65 have consumed cannabis at least once in 2017.
  
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As a result of Varkana's drug policy, drug use among adolescents and "problematic" users declined while drug-related criminal justice workloads decreased. As of 2012, Varkana's drug death toll sat at 3 per million, in comparison to the MOZ average of 17.3 per million. Nevertheless, drug usage and prevalence increased, though the increase in drug use observed among adults in Varkana was not greater than that seen in nearby countries that did not change their drug laws in recent decades.
  
 
===Suicide===
 
===Suicide===
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===Obesity===
 
===Obesity===
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According to the [[Adonian Community]], the prevalence of obesity in Varkana is at 19.10% of the adult population in 2016. It has one of the lowest rate of obesity in the [[MOZ|Mesogean]]. The main cause attributed to obesity and overweight issues in Varkana has been fast food and other unhealthy eating habits. Varkana is one of the most physically active countries in the world. According to AC data, only 18.7 percent of Varkana's sample population was not getting sufficient exercise compared to over 40% in [[Breisland]].
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==See also==
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*[[Healthcare in Varkana]]
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[[Category:Varkana]]

Latest revision as of 19:05, 4 November 2019

Health in Varkana refers to the overall health of the population of Varkana. Average life expectancy in Varkana at birth was 78 years in 2018 according to the Adonian Community. The life expectancy for women was 81.2 while it was 74.7 for men. Infant mortality rate was 2.5 in 2016, while under-five infant mortality was 2.3 in the same year, the second lowest in the MOZ. Varkana's fertility rate in 2016 stood at 2.6 children born per woman.

Health issues

Alcohol

Alcohol plays an integral part of Varkan culture. Alcohol plays a role in celebrations, a variety of social activities, relaxation, as a generator of tax revenue and as a major source of employment and exports. According to the Adonian Community, Varkans rank 1st in alcohol consumption in the MOZ (2016). According to Mesogean data, it ranks #th in beer consumption, #th in wine consumption, and #th in spirits consumption per capita (2016). Despite recent improvements, alcoholism is still a major problem in Varkana. Varkans drank 13.8 litres of pure alcohol per capita in 2016; in the same year alcohol consumption took the form of 40% wine, 45% beer and 14% spirits.

The driving forces behind Varkana's drinking culture are derived from social customs, habits, publicized images and normality. These factors can be enhanced by influences related to the social, physical and economic availability of alcohol. This is driven by marketing and promotion, cost, accessibility and age restrictions. 16 is the legal age at which someone may purchase alcohol. Binge drinking is not common outside of 15-25 age group, and Varkans prefer to drink slowly.

Smoking

Smoking in Varkana was at the highest prevalence rate of tobacco consumption (more than 40%) in the MOZ in 2016. Cigarette consumption in Varkana is just slightly above the global average in overall terms at 1,084.7 cigarettes per capita per year, but prevalence is high at 43.2%, ranking third in Adonia. This indicates a large quantity of Varkans smoke, but they do not smoke a lot of cigarettes compared to other populations.

According to a survey published by the Government of Varkana in 2019, 57% of Varkans are "active or passive smokers" and only 31% of Varkans have never smoked in their life, the smallest percentage in the MOZ. The survey's data include marijuana smoking as well as e-cigarettes and vaping. Smoking was restricted in Varkana since the 1970s, with a ban in public transit and restaurants, cafés etc. had to provide smoking and non-smoking sections. A much stronger smoking ban was introduced in 2004. Smoking in enclosed public places such as offices, schools, government buildings and restaurants became strictly prohibited.

Drug use

Varkana is one of few countries that never criminalized the possession of drugs for personal use. Since 1967, the law establishes no quantity limits, leaving it to the judge's discretion to determine whether the intent was personal use. Once it is determined by the judge that the amount in possession was meant for personal use, there are no sanctions. Cannabis sale and cultivation was fully legalized in 2001 and is the most commonly used drug. Varkana had the highest annual prevalence of cannabis use of any country in Adonia in 2018 according to the Adonian Community. It means 52.7% of Varkans aged 16–65 have consumed cannabis at least once in 2017.

As a result of Varkana's drug policy, drug use among adolescents and "problematic" users declined while drug-related criminal justice workloads decreased. As of 2012, Varkana's drug death toll sat at 3 per million, in comparison to the MOZ average of 17.3 per million. Nevertheless, drug usage and prevalence increased, though the increase in drug use observed among adults in Varkana was not greater than that seen in nearby countries that did not change their drug laws in recent decades.

Suicide

Researchers and sociologists have identified several causes for the high rate of suicide in Varkana; these include fear of pain (most prevalent among the elderly and prisoner populations), unemployment, family relations, social pressures and loneliness. Research undertaken by Senaki University suggested that mental-health issues of middle-aged men and loss of masculine pride and identity are also major factors behind the high rate of suicide. The high suicide rates compared to other countries in the developed world is exacerbated by the large amount of suicide among the elderly and prisoner populations. Heavy alcohol use is also a significant factor in the suicide rate, with an estimated at least a third of all suicides correlated with alcohol abuse.

Suicides in Varkana peaked in the early 1990s and was at the time more prevalent in young men. After the Varkan revolution, suicide rate among young men decreased rapidly, while it increased for the elderly. The most common method used in Varkana is assisted suicide, most commonly delivered in the form of euthanasia. The laws regulating assisted suicide do not limit the practice to the terminally ill, it is only necessary that the person seeking assisted suicide does so while in full possession of their decision-making capacity. The Right to Die is guaranteed in the Varkan constitution.

According to a 2016 article in Krämer, "Numerous studies have shown that places like Aetolia and Varkana that consistently score high on measures of happiness and life satisfaction also have relatively high suicide rates." The article also reported, "Some social scientists speculate that the trends are probably unrelated and can be explained by cultural differences regarding suicide."

2016 statistics

Number of suicides per 100,000 by age group and gender. Varkana, 2016
Age (years) 5–14 15–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55–64 65–74 75+
Males 2.8 6.7 18.7 15.3 26.4 24.6 80.0 116.5
Females 1.1 4.4 8.0 9.1 8.3 7.9 51.3 73.8
Average 1.95 5.55 13.35 12.20 17.35 16.25 65.65 95.15
Source: Government of Varkana

Obesity

According to the Adonian Community, the prevalence of obesity in Varkana is at 19.10% of the adult population in 2016. It has one of the lowest rate of obesity in the Mesogean. The main cause attributed to obesity and overweight issues in Varkana has been fast food and other unhealthy eating habits. Varkana is one of the most physically active countries in the world. According to AC data, only 18.7 percent of Varkana's sample population was not getting sufficient exercise compared to over 40% in Breisland.

See also