Difference between revisions of "Aristocratic communalism"

From Adonia Project
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(→‎top: clean up, replaced: Kartvelian → Varkan)
m (→‎Role of the state: clean up, typos fixed: ie. → i.e.)
Line 28: Line 28:
 
In the 19th century the philosophy of state socialism was first explicitly expounded by the [[Breisland]]ic political philosopher [[wikipedia:Ferdinand Lassalle|Ferdinand Lassalle]]. Lassalle considered the state to be an entity independent of class allegiances and an instrument of justice that would therefore be essential for achieving socialism. Aristocratic communalists hold similar views. To them, the state's vital role is to improve the common well-being of its citizens and establish justice.
 
In the 19th century the philosophy of state socialism was first explicitly expounded by the [[Breisland]]ic political philosopher [[wikipedia:Ferdinand Lassalle|Ferdinand Lassalle]]. Lassalle considered the state to be an entity independent of class allegiances and an instrument of justice that would therefore be essential for achieving socialism. Aristocratic communalists hold similar views. To them, the state's vital role is to improve the common well-being of its citizens and establish justice.
  
Its role lies within a well-established constitution, guaranteeing human rights, liberties and establishing duties for the people. Justice should be provided equally to all citizens without distinction whatsoever. Aristocratic communalism therefore favors civil law over common law. The State acts mainly as an exchange platform for the different communes within it and the population. It should not breach constitutional rights by dictating what religion its citizens should practice (ie. [[Renewal Party (Varkana)|Renewal]] ideas) or how to live their lives but mainly put a framework of rights and duties along the maxim of "the freedom of some ends where someone else's begins." In other words, the state acts as an arbitrator for the population.
+
Its role lies within a well-established constitution, guaranteeing human rights, liberties and establishing duties for the people. Justice should be provided equally to all citizens without distinction whatsoever. Aristocratic communalism therefore favors civil law over common law. The State acts mainly as an exchange platform for the different communes within it and the population. It should not breach constitutional rights by dictating what religion its citizens should practice (i.e. [[Renewal Party (Varkana)|Renewal]] ideas) or how to live their lives but mainly put a framework of rights and duties along the maxim of "the freedom of some ends where someone else's begins." In other words, the state acts as an arbitrator for the population.
  
 
===Aristocracy===
 
===Aristocracy===

Revision as of 08:09, 24 October 2016

Aristocratic communalism (Varkan: არისტოკრატული კომუნალურიზმის aristokratuli komunalurizmis, Aetolian αριστοκρατική κοινοτισμός aristokratikí̱ koinotismós, Breislandic: Aristokratischen Kommunalismus; sometimes abbreviated as AriKom) is a form of meritocratic communalist socioeconomic and political system that originates in Varkana. It is combining more typically left-wing positions with elements of right-wing politics, such as forms of socialism and social conservatism, thus making it a Third Position system. Aristocratic communalism is pursuing an economically rational society, where all goods are designed and manufactured to have the highest durability and quality, a society where needs are guided by rational and ecological standards, set by an aristocratic elite, and where the ancient notions of limit and balance replace the capitalist imperative of "grow or die".

The term derives from the Aetolian aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best", and from Mesogean communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Mesogean communis, things held in common, universal. Outside Varkana, the ideology is generally considered to be centrist to far-right.

Philosophy

In his 1651 book Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes describes an aristocracy as a commonwealth in which the representative of the citizens is an assembly by part. It is a system in which only a small part of the population represents the government. This is exactly what aristocracy in an aristocratic communalist context means. Where aristocratic communalist thinkers, especially Juls Dadiani and Aristotle, the two philosophers who contributed the most to modern artistocratic communalism, disagree with Hobbes is with the best system of government.

If they do not share equally enjoyments and toils, those who labor much and get little will necessarily complain of those who labor little and receive or consume much. But indeed there is always a difficulty in men living together and having all human relations in common, but especially in their having common property. [...] Property should be in a certain sense common, but, as a general rule, private; for, when every one has a distinct interest, men will not complain of one another, and they will make more progress, because every one will be attending to his own business.
Aristotle

Aristotle observes the flaws of communism and favors a mixed system where public and private property coexist for the benefits of the community as a whole.

Aristocracy is the rule of the best, the most fitted citizens to exercise rule, for there is no better system. While a monarchy is theoretically the best system of all, with the monarch exercising a form of dictatorship in the sole interests of the people; in practice, this does not occur due to the human experience, and monarchs and hereditary rule do not necessarily mean the best ruler. Thus comes the idea of an aristocracy, where an elite of citizens with the best competences rule. But to make sure they do not become an oligarchy, this aristocracy must be kept in check within itself and by the people and other parties. In other words, a functional aristocracy must be under a system of checks and balance, where the corruption of one member of the aristocracy is practically and theoretically impossible. Members of the aristocracy must therefore be delegates, recallable at any time, ensuring that the bests always rule. The selection of the aristocracy must be done through a concise, liberal and technical together, but decentralized and free education system. They should be selected by merit alone, based on their knowledge and competences.
Juls Dadiani in Apocalypticodramatic: the sudden destruction of the world (1877)

In common with liberalism, aristocratic communalism puts an emphasis on human rights and individual initiative. However, in contrast to it, it puts an emphasis on the fact that the individual is part of a community and has duties towards it.

Economics

Aristocratic communalism advocates a post-scarcity economy system that will be reached through a transitional phase to limited-autarky. It advocates self-sufficiency, sustainability, and local economies, managed by a central democratic and aristocratic government.

Aristocratic communalist economics support a state-controlled economy that accept a mix of private and public ownership over the means of production. Economic planning is applied to both the public and private sector, and the prosperity of private enterprise depends on its acceptance of synchronizing itself with the economic goals of the state. Communalist economic ideology supports the profit motive, but emphasizes that industries must uphold the common interest as superior to private profit.

While aristocratic communalism accepts the importance of material wealth and power, it condemns materialism, which it identifies as being present in both communism and capitalism, and criticizes materialism for lacking acknowledgement of the principles of environmentalism. In particular, aristocratic communalists criticizes capitalism not because of its competitive nature nor its support of private property which communalists support; but due to its materialism, corrupt individualism, alleged bourgeois decadence, and alleged indifference to the population and the environment. Aristocratic communalism denounces Marxism for its advocacy of materialist internationalist class identity, which aristocratic communalists regard as a form of ochlocracy and against individualism as described by Dadiani and Aristotle.

Economic self-sufficiency, known as autarky, is a major goal of aristocratic communalism. In a way, communes will act as states trading between them in the "world" represented in the state. Aristocratic communalists hold the belief that difficulties (e.g. postwar devastation, lack of natural resources) can be overcome through willpower and ingenuity. For instance, following the Adonian Depression, the saying "in Varkana we don't have oil, but we have ideas" was coined. It emphasizes modernization, resulting in a variety of ambitious state plans. Examples of this trend include the extensive use of renewable energy (all of Varkan electrical consumption), the Varkan intranet, and the Shesar, a high-speed monorail network.

Social and Political theory

Role of the state

In the 19th century the philosophy of state socialism was first explicitly expounded by the Breislandic political philosopher Ferdinand Lassalle. Lassalle considered the state to be an entity independent of class allegiances and an instrument of justice that would therefore be essential for achieving socialism. Aristocratic communalists hold similar views. To them, the state's vital role is to improve the common well-being of its citizens and establish justice.

Its role lies within a well-established constitution, guaranteeing human rights, liberties and establishing duties for the people. Justice should be provided equally to all citizens without distinction whatsoever. Aristocratic communalism therefore favors civil law over common law. The State acts mainly as an exchange platform for the different communes within it and the population. It should not breach constitutional rights by dictating what religion its citizens should practice (i.e. Renewal ideas) or how to live their lives but mainly put a framework of rights and duties along the maxim of "the freedom of some ends where someone else's begins." In other words, the state acts as an arbitrator for the population.

Aristocracy

Aristocratic communalism advocates for a political system where the head of government acts as a collective group of aristocrats, selected individuals from the nation's universities as the most competent people. These aristocrats are delegates, recallable at any time by the system that appoints them, to ensure that the best are always in office. They run the government and dictate the national domestic policy. In Varkana, these aristocrats are the Council of Ten, composed of delegates (councilors) selected by each of the ten university rectors in the country and accountable to them. The rectors are themselves elected by university professors, and both the rector position and the councilor position are bounded by strict standardized selective guidelines. The Council of Ten's actions are subject to the Constitutional Council judicial review, who can repeal decisions if proven to be unconstitutional. The Council of Ten also approves the ministers appointed by the Parliament, forming the Government under the Council's command. Additionally, the Hand, is also considered part of the aristocracy, being an official appointed by the President with the power to delay a legislative vote in Parliament and who overviews domestic and foreign policies, making sure they do not overlap. It is an important feature of aristocratic communalism that domestic policies and foreign policies are separated, the latter including defense policy and the military.

Thus, despite advocating elements of aristocratic rule, aristocratic communalism remains mostly democratic in its political system. Varkana's President and its legislature, the Parliament, are directly elected for specific terms by Varkan citizens in free elections. Additionally, unlike most democracies where elected officials appoint judges, Varkana has a system where communal and supreme court judges are appointed by the Bar of Varkana and approved by the Government; Constitutional Council members are also appointed by the Bar, although they are not subject to government approval. Proponent of this system argue that it effectively reduces considerably risks of corruption within the judicial system and ensures the independence of the judicial system with the political system.

Communalism

Communalism as understood by aristocratic communalists clashes vividly with libertarian municipalism and refers more to communes in a socialist perspective. Bakurin supports a form of collectivism based on communes and cooperative worker's associations allied together into a decentralized and stateless federation. In 1980, the anarchist Murray Bookchin used the term "libertarian municipalism", to describe a system in which libertarian institutions of directly democratic assemblies would oppose and replace the state with a confederation of free municipalities. Libertarian municipalism intends to create a situation in which the two powers — the municipal confederations and the nation-state — cannot coexist.

Aristocratic communalists take aspects of both concepts, but makes it so that the municipal confederation exists within a nation-state. The state holds importance in its aristocracy, while the communes hold importance in its direct democratic approach. Aristocratic communalists argue that while direct democracy is beneficial at the local level, it is counter-productive at the state level, where the rule of an intellectual elite is needed to ensure that the best decisions are made regarding the communes altogether. The necessity of the state appears thus as a method of effective collectivism and cooperation between the different communes, security and economic and political development.

Reform and revolution

Aristocratic communalism holds revolutionary and reformist views. Revolutionary aristocratic communalists believe that a revolution is necessary to effect structural changes to the socio-economic structure of society. Reformism is the belief that aristocratic communalists should stand in parliamentary elections within capitalist or other societies, and if elected, utilize the machinery of government to pass political and social reforms for the purposes of ameliorating the instabilities and inequities of capitalism or other systems.

In Varkana, although colloquially named the Varkan revolution, the changes in 2004 to establish aristocratic communalism and a new constitution in the country were made with a mostly reformist approach.

Criticism of conventional democracies

A main point of aristocratic communalism is its criticism of fully established democracies like Varkana used to be before the Varkan revolution. Such kinds of democracies, still existing and prevailing at this time, are considered by aristocratic communalism as mere ochlocracies ("rule of the general populace") which are democracies ("rule of the people") spoiled by demagoguery, "tyranny of the majority", and the rule of passion over reason, just as oligarchy ("rule of a few") is aristocracy ("rule of the best") spoiled by corruption, and tyranny is monarchy spoiled by lack of virtue.

Democratic communalism

A variant of aristocratic communalism is the so-called "democratic communalism". It advocates a democratic political system alongside a communalist socioeconomic system. The adjective "democratic" replaces "aristocratic" to oppose the aristocratic philosophy and principles of the ideology, which is widely viewed as being non-democratic. Supporters of this variant desire to either make the Council of Ten an electable body by the legislative body or by citizens directly, or to replace it with a Prime Minister.

Criticism

Aristocratic communalism is often criticized for its authoritarian tendencies, lack in fully democratic institutions and somehow important statism. The main opposition comes with liberalism, as the idea of an aristocracy breaches the Western ideals of democracy and the idea of communalism, especially in the economy, is considered as infringements upon liberty.

According to Marxists, and most notably the Kalandist Varkan Communist Party, aristocratic communalism is a proto-fascist ideology. They argue the rise of the New Anticapitalist Party triggered the rise of the Renewal Party, an openly fascist party. Despite allying with the AAP before and during the Varkan revolution, the Communists have defended their actions by stating "democratic communalism [was] a path towards a Kalandist revolution" to properly install a socialist socioeconomic and political system in Varkana.