|Motto: სიბრძნე, სამართლიანობა, სიმამაცე, თავშეკავებისკენ
"Wisdom, Justice, Fortitude, Restraint"
|Anthem: "ანთიო საქართველოს"
"Farewell of Varkana"
Location of Varkana in Adonia
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Aetolian
|Government||Unitary aristocratic communalist constitutional
semi-directorial parliamentary republic
|-||Council of Ten||Members|
|-||Restoration from the Dinarides||1758|
66,188 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||June 2016 estimate|
low · ??th
very high · ??th
|QLI (2016)||7.684 high|
|IEF (2016)||47.9 Repressed|
|Currency||Lari (ლ) (
|Time zone||VST (TUC+1)|
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy CE|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||VA|
|Internet TLD||.va, .ვა|
Varkana (Breislandic: /ˈfɑʀkanɑ/) (Varkan: საქართველო, sakartvelo) is an aristocratic communalist constitutional semi-presidential unitary republic in northwestern Illypnia. Varkana borders Aetolia in the east, Svaneti in the southwest, Ashakarra in the south, Sakalia in the southeast, Echia in the northwest and the Iremian Sea in the north.
By area, Varkana is the ??th largest country in Adonia. With a population of approximately 36 million, it is the ??th most populated country in Adonia and the ??th most populated country in Illypnia. Varkana has its capital in the commune of Klow, the nation's largest commune and the main cultural and commercial center. The current Constitution of Varkana, adopted by referendum in December 2000, establishes the country as aristocratic communalist and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people. The nation's ideals are expressed in its motto: "Wisdom, Justice, Fortitude, Restraint".
During the classical era, independent kingdoms became established in what is now Varkana. The kingdoms of Klow and Valyria consolidated the Varkan peoples and languages through a unified Kingdom of Varkana in the early 4th century. The Kingdom reached the peak of its political and economic strength in the 11th to 15th centuries. After this, Varkana entered in a dual monarchy with Aetolia and formally established the United Kingdom of the Dinarides. In 1758, Varkana started a war for independence from the United Kingdom, the Varkan Restoration War, and formed the First Republic of Varkana in 1760. After the January Revolution in 1882, communists and socialists led by Ana Kalanda, formed the Socialist Republic of Varkana. After the Great Adonian War, the Third Republic of Varkana was established under a capitalistic social democratic welfare state. This lasted until the Varkan revolution of 2000, after which the new government introduced aristocratic communalism and thus founded the Fourth Republic of Varkana.
Varkana is strategically located in the middle of Northern Illypnia and remains a regional power with significant cultural, economic, and political influence in Illypnia and around Adonia. Varkan citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, civil liberties, and human development. Varkana is a founding member of the Adonian Community, the Mesogean Cooperation Organization and the Energy Standard Organization, and is also a member of numerous other international institutions.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
The full, official name of the country in languages other than Varkan is "Varkana", as specified in the Varkan constitution. "Varkana" is an exonym, used in other countries since the medieval period. It is presumably derived from the Middle Vasari varkâna, meaning "land of wolves". The self-designation used by ethnic Varkans is Kartvelebi (ქართველები, i.e. "Kartvelians"), the native name of Varkana Sakartvelo (საქართველო) "land of Kartvelians" and of the Karvelian language Kartuli (ქართული).
The first written records for the history of Varkana appear in the early Iron Age. Aetolian writers noted the presence of a tribal union of early-Kartvelians, first appearing in written history in the 12th century BC. Archaeological finds and references in ancient sources reveal elements of early political and state formations characterized by advanced metallurgy and goldsmith techniques that date back to the 7th century BC and beyond. Between 2100 and 750 BC, the area survived the invasions by various tribes and peoples. At the same period, the ethnic unity of Proto-Kartvelians broke up into several branches, among them Tsali, Karuni and Central-Kartvelians. That finally led to the formation of modern Kartvelian languages: Varkan (originating from Central-Kartvelian vernaculars), Tsali, Kaspian and Galian (the latter two originating from Karuni dialects). By that time Tsali were dominant in modern southern Varkana, the Karuni inhabited modern western Varkana and part of eastern Varkana, while Central-Kartvelians formed the majority in modern central Varkana. As a result of cultural and geographic delimitation, three core areas of future Kartvelian culture and statehood formed in western, eastern and central Varkana by the end of the 8th century BC. The first two Kartvelian states emerged in the west known as the Kingdom of Kaspia and in the east as the Kingdom of Galia. For Central Varkana, two lesser-kingdoms eventually emerged in the beginning of the 7th century BC, the Kingdom of Kartli and the Kingdom of Rioni, with the latter annexed by the former in the 6th century BC.
Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Aetolians established colonies on the Mesogean coast and the offshore islands. The Aetolians conquered the Kaspian coast in the 6th century BC. Afterwards a Kart-Aetolian culture emerged and the Kartvelian kingdoms became client-states of Aetolia. In 189 BC, the Kingdom of Kaspia took over Svaneti, expanding to the south, as well as some other territories. At the same time, the Kingdom of Galia was completely destroyed by the Aetolians and all its territory were incorporated into the Aetolian Empire.
In the later stages of the Antiquity, by the 2nd century AD, Kartli strengthened her position in the area, especially during the reign of Queen Darejan II who achieved full independence from Aetolia and conquered declining Kaspia. In the early 3rd century, the former kingdom of Galia was given a degree of autonomy that by the end of the century developed into full independence. This new eastern Kartvelian state survived more than 50 years until 455 when it was absorbed by the Kingdom of Kartli which became the Kingdom of Varkana. The Vasaras Invasion of Varkana in 486 was repelled, and Varkana solidified its holdings in the area over a long period of ruling stability and with an important alliance with Aetolia. The Ochokochi monarchs ruled Varkana for 800 years.
A succession crisis following the death of the last direct Ochokochi monarch in 1262 led to the series of conflicts known as a succession war between the House of Margania and the House of Nersiani. The latter were generally supported by lesser lords who were promised more autonomy, while the former were supported by the masses and promised more centralization. The war ended with a Margania victory in 1267. Victory by the Margania had the effect of strengthening Varkan nationalism and vastly increasing the power and reach of the Varkan monarchy. Varkana transformed into a centralized absolute monarchy at the time. In 1416, the Margania and Aetolian House of Xenakis planned a marriage between Prince Otari of Varkana and Princess Tatiana of Aetolia, who would inherit both the Aetolian and Varkan crowns after their parents death, effectively creation a union of the two crowns. In 1428, Varkana entered officially in a dual monarchy with the Kingdom of Aetolia. During the next centuries, Varkana experienced the Age of Discovery as part of the United Kingdom of the Dinarides. A burgeoning worldwide colonial empire was established starting in the 16th century, known as the Dinaric Empire.
In the late 18th century Varkana entered in a war of independence with Aetolia, the Varkan Restoration War, which was eventually won in 1760, and established the First Republic of Varkana. The country was for the first time governed for as a Republic, although it had been a constitutional monarchy for over a century prior. The First Republic experienced the Industrial Revolution and became a modern Illypnian state. However, in 1882, Communist leader Ana Kalanda led a popular revolt known as the January Revolution and overthrew the First Republic to establish the Socialist Republic of Varkana, the first communist state in Adonia. Varkana entered the Great Adonian War as a leading figure of the Communist Alliance, but eventually lost the war after a successful Breislandic invasion. Following armistice in 1943, a Third Republic was established.
Varkana slowly recovered economically, and entered the Adonian Depression in 1948. Economic difficulties, early welfare state efforts and post-communist transition marked the 1950s and early 1960s until the election of Socialist Inga Korsantia in 1964, and the start of the Varkan Miracle. Into the 1960s, Korsantia solidified the Varkan welfare state, but was assassinated in 1971 during a coup d'état. A military junta led by Ioseb Jugashvili ruled the country until 1976. Democracy was restored that year, and Varkana entered a period of liberalization of the economy. In 2000, the Varkan revolution brought and end to the Third Republic and a Fourth Republic was established by Zurab Avalishvili based on a new socioeconomic system, aristocratic communalism.
Varkana is located in the very bottom of the Iremian Sea, the southernmost arm of the Mesogean Sea. It is bordered by Aetolia in the east, Svaneti in the southwest, Ashakarra in the south, Sakalia in the southeast, Echia in the northwest and the Iremian Sea in the north.
The Fjords, known as the ფიორდი მთები piordi mtebi in Varkan, are a dramatic feature of the Varkan coast, a 20-km long series of narrow inlets in the cliffs of the coastline between Klow on the west and Oni on the east. The highest peak in the mountains is 565 meters high. The best known fjords of the piordi mtebi include სორმიუ sormiu, მორგიუ morgiu, and სუგიტო sugito.
The phrygana is the typical landscape of northern Varkana: a type of low, soft-leaved scrubland or chaparral found on limestone soils around the Mesogean Sea basin, generally near the coast, where the climate is moderate, but where there are annual summer drought conditions. Juniper and stunted holm oaks are the typical trees; aromatic lime-tolerant shrubs such as lavender, sage, rosemary, wild thyme and Artemisia are common phrygana plants. The open landscape of the phrygana is punctuated by dense thickets of Kermes oak.
The interior of Varkana is a hilly landscape, composed of relatively low mountain ranges, usually below 1,000 meters high, without sharp peaks, rising to 2,000 meters in the Kaspian Mountains. There are many rivers, most running down relatively gentle slopes in large river valleys, though at times their courses become far more rugged and narrow.
The Apennine Mountains form the country's western boundary and the Dalian Mountains form most of its southern boundary, where Varkana's highest point is located on Mount Kazbek (6,768 meters), on the Sakalian border. Lake Paravani is the largest lake of the country, located on a plateau in the western communes. Mount Dorsaluri is probably the best-known mountain in Varkana, thanks to the painter Lado Gudiashvili, who could see it from his home, and painted it frequently. It is a limestone mountain ridge which extends over 18 kilometers to the west of Zestafoni. Its highest point stands at 1,011 meters.
The climate of Varkana is extremely diverse, considering the nation's size and location. There are two main climatic zones, roughly separating northern and southern parts of the country. The country's various mountain ranges play an important role in moderating Varkana's climate and protect the nation from the penetration of colder air masses from the south or hot air masses from the west. The mountainous central lands also protect the inland from the hot and dry air masses from the north.
Much of northern Varkana lies within the southern periphery of the Mesogean climate zone with contrasting temperatures within a range of 15 degrees. Precipitation is irregular, with only 65 days per year where rain falls in excess of 1 mm. However, it falls in sudden downpours, with an average of 500–700 mm annually. This mainly happens in the spring and fall ; summer is very hot, winter mild. Violent winds are common, especially the famed mistral, which blows 100 days per year with a maximum of 100 km/hr. The coast is drier, especially near Klow, the Fjords and the Bay of Oni, which include the driest areas in Varkana, with only 450 mm of rain per year.
The climate of the south varies significantly with elevation and while much of the lowland areas of southern and central Varkana are relatively warm throughout the year, the foothills and mountainous areas experience cool, wet summers and snowy winters (snow cover often exceeds 2 meters in many regions).
Government and politics
Varkana is an aristocratic communalist constitutional semi-presidential unitary republic. The Fourth constitution of Varkana was approved by referendum in December 2000. The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of Varkana, currently Giorgi Latso, who is head of state and is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 4-year term and conducts mainly the foreign policy, and the Government, led by the Council of Ten, representing the Varkan aristocracy.
The Parliament is a tricameral legislature and is composed of 194 members of whom 83 are Senators elected by the population for four years by preferential voting in each commune, 101 Members of the National Assembly using the party-list system and the Council of Ten. In a form of fusion of powers, the government is led by the Council of Ten who head each Departments and act as a collective premiership and MNAs appointed by the Parliament who run each Ministries.
The Law of Varkana is the legislation in force in the Republic of Varkana, which is understood to mean Varkan territory, Varkan waters, consulates and embassies, and ships flying the Varkan flag in international waters and airspace. Varkan law stems from the Varkan people through the democratically approved Constitution. Varkan law is supported principally by the law in the broad sense (laws and regulations) and to a lesser extent by judicial decisions and customs. The supreme Varkan law is the Constitution of 2000, which regulates the functioning of public bodies and the fundamental rights of the Varkan people, as well as the organization and competencies of the different communes. The Constitution, as well as being directly applicable by the judiciary, enjoys a material supremacy that determines the rest of the laws in Varkana. All laws in Varkana must be declared compatible with the Constitution (all laws that contravene the Constitution are invalid). However, it is clear that a public body is needed to regulate the fulfillment of this rule. In Varkana's case, a Constitutional Court exists, which follows the Kelsenian model. The judicial powers fall into the hands of the judges and courts, an office which the public has access to, and in a jury, which is formed by nationals chosen by lottery in every case. The Constitutional Council controls the laws and the actions of the public administration must fit into the Varkan Constitution.
Marriage is considered a religious institution and is subject to approval by the State to be deemed legal and considered as a civil union. Civil Union is the ultimate and sole legal partnership in Varkana and is guaranteed equal access for same-sex couples. As such, marriage is considered entirely a religious matter and the State has no right in intervening. But the State reserves itself the right to refuse to recognize and therefore legalize a said marriage if it is not constitutional.
Varkana is subdivided into 5 geographic regions, for statistical purposes. The country is further divided into 117 communes, each overseen by an elected prefect, communal legislature and administrative bureaucracy. All of the territory of the Republic of Varkana is covered by communes except in government lands where the communes do not have local representation and is directly administered by the state. This apart, powers, size, population in communes may vary considerably from one to another. Communes are a supralocal type of regional municipality, and act as the local municipality in unorganized territories within their borders. Most communes are subdivided into villages or districts, which act as local municipalities, with over 3,500 as of 2016. The council of a commune is composed of the mayors of the member villages (municipalities) as well as a prefect. The prefect is usually elected by and from the council by secret ballot. Universal suffrage may also be used. The prefect's mandate is 2 years when elected by council or 4 years when elected by universal suffrage. The council and prefect act as the executive entity of the commune, while the people/citizens act as the legislature.
The communes have a permanent constitutional status and, in comparison with the situation in other countries, a high degree of independence for an administrative division in a unitary state. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of compulsory education (primary and secondary) buildings and technical staff, of local roads and school and communal transportation, and infrastructures. Contrary to most countries, a commune in Varkana holds considerable power on its local economic policy.
Villages or districts in urban communes such as Klow, Kaspi or Senaki, on the other hand, form the second-level administrative division of Varkana. Villages typically are based on pre-existing towns and facilitate local governance. All villages have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are villages, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers. The villages are the lowest level of administrative division in Varkana and are governed by elected officials, the mayor, with extensive autonomous powers to implement communal policy. The mayor of a village is also a member of the communal council and therefore is responsible to represent their village to the rest of the commune. Varkan law makes allowances for the vast differences in commune size in a number of areas of administrative law. The size of the communal council, the method of electing the prefect and mayors, and the maximum allowable pay of the prefect and mayors (among other features) all depend on the population echelon into which a particular commune falls.
For political, economic and statistical purposes, Varkana also contains 19 combined statistical areas, intercommunal structures composed of adjacent communes that can demonstrate economic or social linkage. The Government of Varkana defines a combined statistical area as consisting of various combinations of adjacent communes with economic ties measured by economic data and commuting patterns. Most of these areas are not actually urban zones, and regroup large agricultural, hydrographic or mountainous areas in their territories. The functions of combined statistical areas include economic development, waste collection and management, transportation, housing, management of drinking water networks, sanitation, signage and parking, public lighting, rainwater, management of recreational ports, rural and urban planning, geographic information systems, school transport, and the promotion abroad of the area and its economic activities.
The foreign policy of Varkana is based on its identity as a sovereign nation in Illypnia and is almost completely separated from its domestic policy. As such its primary foreign policy focus is on its relations with other nations as a sovereign independent nation. The Presidential Office's stated goal is to establish a new world order based on its motto: "Wisdom, Justice, Fortitude, Restraint". However, the current President of Varkana, Giorgi Latso, stated that these terms should be understood in the context of a global aristocratic communalist socioeconomic system. Varkana's foreign relations are based on two strategic principles: eliminating outside influences in the region and pursuing extensive diplomatic contacts with allies and potential allied countries. Varkana is said to have a "vital relationship" with Aetolia and a close partnership with predominantly-Armazist nations, including Armazia, Faencia, Rutuli, Meleto, Svaneti and Thermessa, the "Armazist Connection". Varkana also has close relations with other mainly Pagan nations such as Skade and Kalinova, as well as nations with significant pagan minorities such as Kotcija, Vasaras and Wolffrea.
During the Third Republic era, Varkana combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defense. The function of the Varkan military was to deter attack. At the same time, the country maintained relatively close informal connections with various nations, especially in the realm of intelligence exchange.
Following the Varkan revolution, in 2000, Varkana attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations with the election of Zurab Avalishvili as President. It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the Adonian Community. Since the election of Giorgi Latso as President in 2012, Varkana has adopted a more moralistic and unconventional foreign policy approach dubbed Gerissenpolitik. Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions.
The Military of Varkana is divided into 6 branches: the National Guard, the Land, Air, Cyber and Special forces, and the Coast Guard. The President of Varkana holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense. The Presidency administers the armed forces. The Coast Guard is run by the Department of the Interior in peacetime and by the Presidency during times of war. In 2016, the armed forces had 110,000 personnel on active duty. The reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 406,000. The presidency also employed about 175,000 civilians for the military. Military service is voluntary, and conscription may never occur, even in wartime as specified by law. Varkan forces can be rapidly deployed in Illypnia and Kaftia. The military operates five bases and facilities in Svaneti: SDB Bolshaya, SDB Kisha, SJB Oktya, SJB Yablonovka, and SJB Zhokhrak. The military budget of Varkana in 2014 was ₭15.025 billion, at around 1.5% of GDP.
For most of its history, the Varkan military has followed a no prisoners policy, which was revoked after the Great Adonian War. Numerous soldiers and civilians who chose to commit suicide rather than surrender at the end of the war in Varkana was a common sight, shocking occupying troops. In the military itself, considering the large amount of female soldiers, the Varkan government encouraged at the time soldiers to commit suicide before being captured and becoming POWs and likely facing sexual assaults by the enemy. Such cases of sexual violence against Varkan soldiers have been numerous throughout the country's history, most notably against Kandari forces in the early 16th century. Mass suicide by civilians and soldiers at the end of the Great Adonian War is explained by Varkan historians by the fear of occupation by a foreign power, considering Varkana had never been conquered and occupied until then.
As far as the Varkan intelligence units are concerned, the SSD (სსდ) is considered to be a component of the military under the authority of the Secretariat of Defense. Varkana has signed but not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and is believed to maintain an important stockpile of chemical weapons and to practice a policy of deliberate ambiguity. It has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Varkana's telecommunication system is highly developed with its market having been fully liberalized since the 90s. Varkana is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to foreign countries.
Varkana uses its own Intranet system, available for free throughout Varkana and only there. All education institutions in the country uses the Intranet extensively for various purposes, including online libraries, ideas forums, etc. The system is also used by communal administrations, the central government, and various affiliated organizations such as the Bank of Varkana and the Varkan Stock Exchange.
Benefiting from important natural resources, a highly educated population, a diversified industrial base, and a large agricultural sector, the economy of Varkana is Illypnia's ??th largest and the 10th largest in the MOZ. It has a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index and a high GDP per capita, with a strong domestic market size and a growing share of the high-tech sector. A developed country, Varkana is a founding member of the MOZ, the Energy Standard Organization and pioneer in various sectors. Historically, however, its economic performance has depended on its national politics, with high economic growth alternating with stagnation and recession.
Varkana has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise with substantial state enterprise and government intervention. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with ownership of railway, electricity, airline, banking and national communications such as postal service and intranet. Bank of Varkana is Adonia's largest bank by assets. An important characteristic of the Varkan economy since the revolution is its decentralized domestic market, with several local economies interact with each other with participatory economics at the center of its framework. This decentralized planning is an important aspect of Varkana's new aristocratic communalist economic policies, with an increasing number of worker cooperatives across the country, especially in the agricultural and services sectors.
Several Varkan companies are world leaders in their industry, such as the Bank of Varkana, the largest bank and largest company in Adonia by assets, Erelko, the largest electric utility, Alkosa, the largest aluminum company, Veolia, the largest public utility, Badagoni, the largest construction materials company and Saseko, the largest uranium company.
Giorgi Latso has described Varkana's new system as follow: "A country with its economic foundations centralized and state-owned to facilitate exchanges across the nation and guarantee a delivery of vital services, with decentralized communal economics for direct citizen consumption and liberal economics for non-vital sectors; we have combined the best of capitalism and socialism to create our own strong communalist economy."
Erelko, the sole electricity generation and distribution state-owned company in Varkana, is also one of Adonia's largest producers of electricity. In 2014, it produced all of Varkana's electricity needs, generated mainly by its numerous hydroelectric dams. Erelko produces electricity from renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, and has a mandate to preserve the environment. The energy balance of Varkana has undergone a large shift over the past 15 years. In 1998, electricity ranked as the main form of energy used in Varkana (47.6%), followed by oil (38.2%) and natural gas (4.7%). By 2002, natural gas was no longer used, replaced by electricity, and as of 2014, electricity reached 99% of the total energy used. The remaining 1% consists of airplane and ship fuel. Considering the full electrification of ground transports completed from 2002 to 2009, Varkana's electricity consumption has almost doubled during that period. As a result, Erelko reduced considerably its electricity exports to neighboring nations.
Varkana has important reserves of uranium in the south of the country, making its nuclear plants self-sufficient. It nevertheless exports a significant amount its production to neighboring Aetolia. Varkana remains one of Adonia's leading countries in the development and production of renewable energy and the electricity sector in general.
Science and technology
In 2014, Varkana spent approximately 31.3ლ billion on domestic research and development, of which around 7ლ billion was provided by the national government. Varkana has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 32.36 million users, equivalent to around 90 percent of its total 2015 population. As of 2015, the country has developed numerous new technologies, especially in the transportation sector. From 1970, SARK, the Varkan national railroad company, has developed the MSM, a high speed train which holds a series of world speed records. Qhar, a Varkan automotive company, has also been producing a variety of electric vehicles in partnership with Erelko, the Varkan state-owned electricity company. Erelko with its research center, ESKI, has contributed in developing various electricity-related projects and innovations.
Despite not having a highly active space program, Varkana has been developing rockets and satellites. Since the 1960s, Varkana's aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite. The country has also produced successful space rockets. Some of Varkana's more prominent technological contributions are in the fields of electronics, transportation, machinery, electrical engineering, civil engineering, pharmaceutical, chemicals and metals.
The climate of Varkana, its geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, unique culture and excellent infrastructure, has made Varkana's international tourist industry among the largest in Adonia. The country features cities of high cultural interest, beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquility. Varkana attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to Armazia. While the principal country of origin of tourists is Aetolia, a large number of majority-Christian countries in Illypnia are in the list, including Echia, Volisania, Kastruneto, Sarta and Breisland.
Varkana is full of high mountains and good ski resorts, with famous ski slopes all over the Dalian and Apennine mountains. For the most part, the main crest forms a massive divider between Varkana and neighboring nations. 40% of Varkana is covered by natural reserves, including the Dali Natural Reserve and Apenini Natural Reserve.
The nightlife in Varkana is very attractive to both tourists and locals. The country of wolves is known to have some of the best nightlife in Adonia, due to its low drinking age, drug tolerance, and adulthood starting at 16. Dense communes such as Klow, Kaspi and Senaki are favorites among the large and popular bars and nightclubs. For instance, Klow is known as the number one city in the country for bars and good alcohol, while Senaki for nightclubs and being a "party town", and Kaspi is famous for its smoking cafés from shisha to weed to opium. There is no restriction across the country on operating hours for these establishments, with a few popular bars, cafés and nightclubs never closing.
The railway network of Varkana, which as of 2014 stretches 11,829 kilometers is the fourth most extensive in Northern Illypnia. It is managed by SARK, which operates the MSM, a high-speed train which travels up to 360 km/h in commercial use, and conventional rail, the InterCommunal network. Rail connections exist to all neighboring countries in Illypnia, except Ashakarra which is connected through the pass tunnel in Svaneti. Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services and tramway services complementing bus services.
There are approximately 408,778 kilometers of serviceable roadway in Varkana. Varkan roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring Aetolia, Echia, Sakalia and Svaneti. Since 2009, Varkana has banned gasoline road, train and sea vehicles from being used in Varkan territory with the exception of cargo ships and airplanes. In other words, all road vehicles must be fully electric, as provided by law, with several electric recharge facilities all over the country installed over the last decade. Drivers who wish to cross the Varkana border with a conventional combustion engine may do so only if they cross to a neighboring country without stopping in Varkana and it includes a heavy fee. This is to ensure that foreign drivers will not be stuck in Varkana without the possibility to refuel their vehicle. Conveniently, both Echia and Aetolia have several gas stations before crossing the Varkan border to accommodate drivers. The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as Qhar and BYD Auto, due to the restrictions on engine types.
There are 112 airports in Varkana, of which 10 are open for commercial flights, all of them being international airports with no commercial domestic flights permitted. President Inga Korsantia International Airport, located in the vicinity of Klow, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, although Varkana has historically focused on developing regional hubs instead of focusing on hub-and-spoke strategy. SAK Varkana is the national state-owned airline and flag carrier as provided by law, although numerous private airline companies provide international travel services.
There are several major ports in Varkana along the northern coast, the largest of which is the Port of Vale, followed by the Port of Klow and the Port of Kaspi. Several waterways run along the principal rivers of Varkana, including the Mtkvari River up to Naruja and the Alazani River up to Sioni, connecting the Alazani and Mtkvari from Chiatura to Borjomi and connecting with the Sinora River through Gali.
With an estimated population of 36 million people as of 2016, Varkana is the ??th-most populous country in Adonia and the ??th-most populous in Illypnia. According to a 2016 report from the Adonian Community, Varkana's total fertility rate (2.6 children born per woman) is higher than the Adonian average of 2.5 and those of Aetolia (1.8) and Echia (1.7), but lower than Svaneti (3.2). The country is noted for its urban sprawl, with most Varkans living in urban areas. Varkana is a highly urbanized country, with its largest commune being Klow. However, the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely populated areas are the Alazani Valley (that accounts for around 43% of the national population) and the coastal areas along the Iremian Sea, while vast regions such as the Dalian and Apennine mountains are very sparsely populated.
Most historians and scholars of Varkana as well as anthropologists, archaeologists and linguists tend to agree that the ancestors of modern Varkans inhabited the region since the Neolithic period. Scholars usually refer to them as Proto-Kartvelian tribes. Some Illypnian historians of the 19th century (e.g., Wilhelm von Humboldt and Paul Kretschmer) as well as Varkan scholars (R. Gordeziani, S. Kaukhchishvili and Z. Gamsakhurdia) came to the conclusion that Proto-Kartvelians might be related linguistically and culturally to the indigenous (pre-Indo-European) peoples of ancient Illypnia including the Proto-Aetolians, "Etruscans" and Proto-"Basques". A law originating from the Second Republic and reaffirmed in the 2000 Constitution makes it illegal for the Varkan state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.
Largest communes of Varkana
Government of Varkana
|Rank||Regions of Varkana||Pop.||Rank||Regions of Varkana||Pop.|
|1||Klow||Northern Varkana||1,552,619||11||Mhedi||Central Varkana||667,870|| |
|2||Gali||Eastern Varkana||1,126,755||12||Rustavi||Northern Varkana||635,892|
|3||Borjomi||Central Varkana||946,297||13||Vani||Northern Varkana||597,694|
|4||Zestafoni||Northern Varkana||852,894||14||Pitsunda||Central Varkana||581,466|
|5||Amos||Central Varkana||849,723||15||Senaki||Central Varkana||576,615|
|6||Fargo||Western Varkana||812,960||16||Zaglianu||Northern Varkana||576,085|
|7||Chiatura||Central Varkana||808,621||17||Kaspi||Western Varkana||576,008|
|8||Valko||Western Varkana||788,263||18||Tsalka||Eastern Varkana||568,709|
|9||Vale||Northern Varkana||691,042||19||Kojori||Southern Varkana||568,592|
|10||Tsqaltubo||Southern Varkana||675,122||20||Agara||Northern Varkana||562,704|
Combined statistical areas
|Combined statistical areas||Area
|Greater Klow Area||6,667.37||6,730,652|
|Greater Senaki Area||6,515.44||3,375,808|
|Greater Kaspi Area||2,775.86||2,722,727|
|Greater Gali Area||8,807.51||2,121,407|
|Greater Pitsunda Area||13,208.83||1,751,849|
|Greater Sioni Area||14,505.39||1,413,228|
|Greater Agara Area||2,542.22||1,396,012|
|Greater Kojori Area||14,457.1||1,138,892|
|Greater Vava Area||3,221.24||1,134,469|
|Greater Zaglianu Area||3,417.47||1,117,402|
|Greater Chernisi Area||2,074.53||1,062,352|
|Greater Naruja Area||8,788.72||1,045,196|
|Greater Vani Area||809||1,010,376|
|Greater Tsqaltubo Area||12,779.05||858,737|
|Greater Balisi Area||1,725.17||687,802|
|Greater Terjola Area||1,395.02||623,985|
|Greater Istovo Area||4,725.94||519,765|
|Greater Belovo Area||3,860.34||432,718|
The official language of Varkana is Varkan. The Varkan language is neither Kemal-Illypnian, Kandari nor Semitic. It is written in its own unique writing system, the Varkan script. According to the 2016 population census, 90.767% of the population declared Varkan as their mother tongue ("mother tongue is defined as the first or main language spoken at home during childhood"). 2.8% of the population declared Aetolian as their mother tongue, while 1.9% declared it was Kaspian, 1.4% Galian and 0.3% Vlahestian. The latter four languages are recognized as regional languages by the national government, being official in several communes in the country. Slightly over one million of Varkans are Allophone (from the Aetolian ἀλλόφωνος allóphōnos "speaking a foreign tongue"; i.e. they have mother tongues other than any of the official languages), representing 2.8% of the population.
Varkan has a rich word-derivation system. By using a root, and adding some definite prefixes and suffixes, one can derive many nouns and adjectives from the root. For example, from the root -kartv-, the following words can be derived: Kartveli (a Varkan person), Kartuli (the Varkan language) and Sakartvelo (Varkana).
Varkan has a vigesimal number system, based on the counting system of 20, like "Basque". In order to express a number greater than 20 and less than 100, first the number of 20s in the number is stated and the remaining number is added. For example, 93 is expressed as ოთხმოცდაცამეტი - otkh-m-ots-da-tsameti (lit. four-times-twenty-and-thirteen).
Most Varkans adhere to the Armazist faith, the vast majority belonging to the Armazist Church. The collective influence of Armazism on the country's political, economic and cultural life is significant. The Varkan Constitution guarantees freedom of religion, but the government only recognizes Armazism as an official religion. Varkana recognizes agnosticism and atheism, while any other religion is considered as a sect. Varkana is a secular country in which the state must respect all religions or sects. Any such sects are legal and they are only reprehensible if they violate the law. In the 2016 Varkan census, 87.18% of Varkans identified themselves as Armazists (79.11% Paradosian, 5.45% Orthodox and 2.62% Homeric), 6.96% non-religious (including Agnostics and Atheists), 1.69% Magdalenans, 0.91% Jewish and 3.28% unstated.
The Varkan 1962 Law On Sects, in its own words, aims at movements deemed cultic that "undermine human rights and fundamental freedoms". The law does not define new crimes, except in association with existing crimes. The law is causing controversy internationally, with some commentators alleging that it infringes religious freedom. Proponents of the law allege, on the contrary, that it reinforces religious freedom, since it aims at protecting people in a weak position (including children), preventing criminal organizations from forcing such people into religious and other activities. For instance, minors may not join any religious organizations including Armazism until reaching the age of majority, 16 year old. Private religious practice (for children) is however not restricted if done in private settings in family dwellings for example (activities such as praying or reading 'holy' books).
With little tolerance on other religions than Armazism practiced in Varkana, conflicts with followers of different religions arise periodically. Moreover, Varkana's political leadership has played an important role in the relations between groups, both positively and negatively, promoting mutual respect by affirming the Constitution but also promoting the state religion, which has caused a number of conflicts in certain regions of the country.
The advocacy group Freedom House produced a report entitled "Religious Freedom in the World" in 2012 which ranked countries according to their religious freedom. Varkana received a score of 7, indicating it was one of the countries where religious freedom was least respected.
Varkana has a universal health care system that is administered and funded by the Department of Health. Unlike most developed nations, there are no private hospitals, and private insurance is nonexistent. Participation in a medical insurance plan is compulsory. All Varkan citizens are entitled to basic health care as a fundamental right. The Varkan healthcare system is based on the National Health Insurance Law of 1968, which mandates all citizens resident in the country to join the official health insurance organization which is run as not-for-profit organization, and is prohibited by law from denying any Varkan citizen membership. Varkans can increase their medical coverage and improve their options by purchasing private health insurance.
As part of the national health insurance plan, all Varkan citizens are entitled to the same Uniform Benefits Package, and treatment under this package is government-funded for all citizens regardless of their financial means. The Uniform Benefits Package covers all costs in the areas family medicine, emergency treatment, elective surgery, transplants, and medications for serious illnesses that are part of the official "basket of medications" (which is large and updated regularly). All major Varkan insurance companies offer private health insurance plans. These plans provide coverage for additional options for treatments. For example, in the area of elective surgery, a participant in a private insurance plan may choose the surgeon, anesthetist, and hospital anywhere in Varkana or around the world. In the area of transplants, unlimited funding is available to ensure a donor is found and the procedure is done without the need for government approval. In the area of medications for serious illnesses, private insurance companies give access to a wider range of than the official "basket of medications".
A considerable portion of the government budget is assigned to health care, and Varkana spent 9.125% of its GDP in health care expenditures or ₭2,618 in spending per capita in 2016. Overall, the country's health care system is one of the best performing on the planet, ranked ??th by the Adonian Health Organization. As of 2016, Varkana had 3.8 doctors per 1,000 people and 15.3 nurses per 1,000 people. Varkans are among the world's healthiest people, with 81% reporting to be in good health, according to an independent survey. The average life expectancy is 78 years old.
However, the health of the inhabitants of Varkana is not optimal in all areas. Despite the drop in wine consumption since the 1960s, Varkans remain not only the largest drinkers in Illypnia, but also one of the largest smokers. 75% of 18–75 years smoked daily (marijuana or tobacco) in 2010, despite intense campaigns against smoking. Smoking in public places including pubs, restaurants, night clubs and offices has been banned. Restaurants with certain permits are allowed for smokers, most notably for shisha cafés.
The education system in Varkana considerably changed from a system modeled on the interests of industrialization to the interests of progress and self achievement. Nowadays, the schooling system in Varkana is completely centralized, and is composed of two stages, general education and higher education.
Compulsory education, or general education, comprises primary and secondary education, which is most of the time conducted at the same institution. Education is mandatory by law for children aged from 6 to 18 years. The school year lasts eight months, beginning between 21 August and 1 September, ending between 31 May and 10 June with two months of holidays during the winter and two months during the summer. Courses take place five days a week. All schools in Varkana are mixed sex schools.
Primary education consists in a curriculum of basic courses for the development of a primary set of knowledge as guided by the government. These courses include intensive Varkan classes, mathematics, history and physical education, among others. Students are to pass all these classes before being able to begin secondary education. They therefore fulfill their primary education at similar levels and ages. Usually, students finish their primary education at the age of 12.
Secondary education is different than primary education. Students get a lot more liberties than in primary school. They are to decide which classes they want with a series of class points. Certain classes give more points than others and follow levels. For instance, a student who hasn't pass Geography 1 couldn't register for Geography 2. Students are required to all have general courses or formation, which include Varkan language classes, physical education, philosophy and a foreign language class of which Aetolian is the most common choice. Breislandic is also relatively popular. This education system shows uncommon characteristics such as students of different age studying in the same class.
Higher education in Varkana comprises ten universities, originating from the education reform of Inga Korsantia in 1970 which consolidated the 42 existing universities at the time and planned to establish free university tuition in 1971. Following the reforms initiated during the Varkan revolution, these universities are now entirely publicly funded by the Department of Education. They are actively part of the political system of Varkana by which teachers elect the university's rector who chooses a student of their university to become a Ten's councilor based on a series of criteria.
Varkana has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot be simply classified by period, but also by commune, because of Varkana's division into several communes since the 19th century. This has created a highly diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs. Varkan architecture is influenced by a number of architectural styles, including several each for castles, towers, fortifications and temples. The communes in the north of the country have more traditional Mesogean style of architecture, heavily influenced by Aetolian classical architecture and neighbouring nations.
Varkan architecture includes a rich collection of monuments from the Aetolian antiquity era; Armazist temples from the Romanesque period, medieval palaces and temples; fortifications from the time of the Dinaric Empire, as well as numerous hilltop villages and fine temples. Varkana was a relatively poor region after the 18th century, but in the 20th century it had an economic revival and became the site of one of the most influential buildings of the 20th century, the Housing Unit of the architect Le Corbusier in Klow.
Varkana has a rich heritage in the visual arts, especially in frescoes, murals and icons. Visual arts in the Varkan lands experienced an upsurge during the entire period of the Middle Ages, pushed by the establishment of Armazism as national religion.
In the 19th century, Impressionism and Symbolism became important in Varkana. The most famous Varkan impressionist painter was Lado Gudiashvili. On the other hand, Giorgi Papassavas, a Varkan of the Aetolian-speaking community, became known for his realistic paintings of Varkan women.
Around the late 1960s, graffiti was used as a form of expression by political activists who mainly opposed the Third Republic or other countries, and also by gangs in Klow to mark territory. Graffiti is one of the four main modern elements of Varkan visual culture. The relationship between graffiti and the authorities was clashing, as graffiti usually opposed the establishment. After the Varkan revolution, graffiti were now praised by various people, to the point where building owners would request artists to make graffiti on their building.
In Varkana, the 1998 action movie Taxi outsold Saving Private Ryan and Armageddon which ran at the same time. Since the success of the film Amélie in 2001, the Varkan film industry has begun to gain recognition internationally. Domestic film has a dominant share of the market, partly because of the existence of screen quotas requiring cinemas to show Varkan films at least 100 days a year. As a result, Varkana is today one of the few countries where Hollywood productions do not enjoy a dominant share of the domestic market. The Varkan-language television industry in Varkana is heavily dependent on original, domestic productions since no other country has a Varkan-speaking majority. As the Varkan-language stations did not compete with foreign stations, and viewers were relatively uninterested in dubs of foreign imports, there was a larger incentive to invest in original dramas and entertainment programming catered towards the Varkan audience.
In 2003 the film Rise of the Wolf was a huge success and even surpassed the benchmark set by Amélie in Varkana, although was less of a success internationally. Marianna Bajusz, the director of Rise of the Wolf, has gone on to direct many popular films in Varkana and abroad, and is especially known for The Varkan Trilogy. DIRECTOR is also a well-respected filmmaker and is known for using minimal dialogue between characters to create an emotional response from the audience. He is known especially for ?? and ???. As of 2006, new films continue to break records, and many Varkan productions are more popular than Hollywood films. Both ?? and ?? were watched by over 8 million people, a quarter of the Varkan population at the time. Silmido is a film based on a true story about drug trafficking in the 70s. The other is a blockbuster movie about the Great Adonian War directed by the director of Taxi.
The Varkan myth of national creation goes something like this: when Gaia was distributing land among its children, humans, the Varkans were too busy drinking and feasting to turn up on time. When they finally arrived there was nothing left. 'But Goddess', they protested, 'we were only late because we were toasting you!' Touched by this sentiment, Gaia gave them the land she had been keeping for herself...
Ever since, feasting has been central to Varkan society and still provides the principal occasion for making music. People gather for a lavish picnic at the slightest excuse, led by a tamada or 'toastmaster' in dedicating toasts to the gods, long life and the ancestors, among other things. Each toast is accompanied by an appropriate song, as well as snippets of wisdom from the tamada.
Varkana has rich and still vibrant traditional music, which is primarily known as arguably the earliest polyphonic tradition of the Western world. Situated on the border of Western Illypnia and Eastern Illypnia, Varkana is also the home of a variety of urban singing styles with a mixture of native polyphony, Western Fosian monophony and late Western Illypnia harmonic languages. Varkan performers are well represented in the world's leading opera troupes and concert stages.
The folk music of Varkana consists of at least fifteen regional styles, known in Varkan musicology and ethnomusicology as "musical dialects". Varkan folk music is predominantly vocal and is widely known for its rich traditions of vocal polyphony. It is widely accepted in contemporary musicology that polyphony in Varkan music dates back to the Antiquity. All regional styles of Varkan music have traditions of vocal a cappella polyphony. Vocal polyphony based on ostinato formulas and rhythmic drone are widely distributed in all Varkan musical styles. Apart from these common techniques, there are also other, more complex forms of polyphony: pedal drone polyphony and contrapuntal polyphony. Contrapuntal polyphony features the local variety of the yodel, known as krimanchuli.
Singing is mostly a community activity in Varkana, and during big celebrations (for example, weddings) all the community is expected to participate in singing. Traditionally, top melodic parts are performed by individual singers, but the bass can have dozens or even hundreds of singers. There are also songs (usually more complex) that require a very small number of performers. Out of them the tradition of "trio" (three singers only) is very popular in coastal communes. Varkan folk songs are often centered around banquet-like feasts called supra, where songs and toasts to the gods, peace, motherland, long life, love, friendship and other topics are proposed. Traditional feast songs include "Zamtari" ("Winter"), which is about the transient nature of life and is sung to commemorate ancestors, and a great number of "Mravalzhamier" songs. As many traditional activities greatly changed their nature (for example, working processes), the traditional feast became the harbor for many different genres of music. Work songs are widespread in all communes.
Varkan Classical is one of the most performed in Adonia; Varkan composers include some of the most accomplished and popular in history, among them Dmitry Shostakhvari, Zakaria Paliashvili, Andrea Balanchivadze, Elene Dolidze, Nino Taktakishvili and Gabriela Kancheli. Shostakhvari's music especially has a great historical significance for Varkans. He was a fervent communist and admirer of Levan Gotua, and wrote his Seventh Symphony in 1939, dedicated to the victory over Echia. His Eighth Symphony was written in the summer of 1943, after the armistice was signed, and Socialist Varkana was occupied by Breisland, and is "his most tragic work" according to his family, representing the "doom that awaited Varkana after the fall of Gotua". Varkan classical music is still appreciated and well alive in the musical market of the country, ranking second in market share after folk and ahead of pop.
Ana Malazonia, Mariam Elieshvili, Anri Jokhadze, Dato Kenchiashvili, Nino Basharuli, Aleksandre Basilaia, Qetevan Vardiashvili da Qeta, Sopho Khalvashi, Sisters Nakeuri, Salome Tetiashvili and Beso Rostiashvili, and the popular group Bani are among the most important actual Varkan folk and pop artists. One of the most famous composers of the film business is Yann Tierseli.
Dadiani's Revenge (შურისძიების) is considered to be the most known Varkan literature work. Greatest representatives of Varkan literature in the 19th century were: Nino Baratashvili (poet), Alexander Orbeliani (writer), Vakhtang Orbeliani (poet), Dmitry Kipiani (writer), Aisha Orbeliani (poet), Paola Chavchavadze (writer and poet), Akaki Tsereteli (poet), Marina Kazbegi (writer), Rapiel Eristavi (poet), Mamia Gurieli (poet), Khatia Gogebashvili (writer), Simona Gugunava (poet). Since the 20th century, literature in Varkana has been dominated by fiction novels, and publishing houses in the country are various and extensive, supported by the Department of Culture. Per capita, there are more published writers in Varkana than in any other country in Adonia. This is due mostly to foreign literature rarely translated in Varkan.
Medieval philosophy was dominated by Dinaric philosophy until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance and the spread of Christian authors. Modern philosophy began in Varkana in the 19th century with the philosophy and writings of Giuli Dadiani during the late years of the First Republic. Dadiani relativized Armazist philosophy, which had declined after the Dinaric era. Communist leader Ana Kalanda's philosophy emerged at the same time, as Dadiani and her were close friends. Dadiani influenced partly Kalandism while, his philosophy is considered to be the main basis of modern-day aristocratic communalism.
The Breislandic philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, lived part of his life in Varkana during the end of the First Republic and fled after the foundation of the Second Republic. He heavily criticized the regime change harshly whenever the case, clashing with Karl Marx's praises in 1882, of the creation of the first modern socialist state on Adonia, the Varkan Second Republic, with the simple sentence: "We won." Nietzsche is however very influential in Varkana's modern leftist heritage. There is a trail called the Path of Nietzsche that goes from the edge of the sea as a snake on a steep slope to the hilltop village of Oni, in the commune of the same name. Nietzsche is said to have taken this trail, while he was staying in Klow, mostly ill, and was inspired to write the third part of Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
Varkana's society consists of close knit families. There are other important social organizations in Varkana that have gradually evolved from the idea of family. These organization works for the social benefit and welfare of the people of Varkana. The institution of civil union also plays an important role in the Varkan society. Tradition and religious practices forms a core of the social lifestyle of the Varkan people. Women in Varkan society are given great importance and are provided with good educational facilities. Loyalty to the family comes before other social relationships, even business. Nepotist values are promoted in Varkana since they imply the growth of trust and security in business. Varkans are a people who retain a sense of formality when dealing with each other, which is displayed in the form of extreme politeness in language. In Varkan society, appearance is very important, especially in larger communes like Klow. People are fashion conscious and believe that clothes indicate social standing and healthiness. They take great pride in wearing good fabrics and clothes of the best standard they can afford. Varkana is a culture that respects hierarchy. Society is highly stratified and vertically structured. People respect intellectual authority and look to those above them for guidance and decision-making. Rank is important, and those with better qualifications than you must always be treated with respect. This leads to an aristocratic approach to decision-making and problem solving, especially in the government. In business, power and authority is generally decided with consensus building with all parties involved.