Treaty of Koblenz (1947)
The Treaty of Koblenz (Breislandic: Friedensvertrag von Koblenz) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought the Great Adonian War to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between the Allied Powers and the Coastal Powers. It was signed on 11 November 1947 in Koblenz, exactly 13 years, 3 months and 15 days after the start of the war. The remaining countries part of the Communist Alliance in Fosia (Daras and its allies) signed separate treaties. Although the armistice, signed on 8 March 1947, ended the actual fighting, it took eight months of negotiations at the Koblenz Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty.
The treaty restored diplomatic relations between the involved nations to uti possidetis, maintaining the borders of the involved sovereign states in the two sides to the lines at the signing of the armistice. The treaty also opened the door to nation-to-nation negotiations for border conflicts and possible restoration of borders to status quo ante bellum if desired. It also included territorial concessions on both parts, such as the independence of all occupied sovereign states.
- 1 Background
- 2 Attendance
- 3 Negotiations
- 4 Political clauses
- 5 Border changes
- 6 Reactions
- 7 See also
Great Adonian War
Treaty of Castejon
Treaty of Klow
Notable Coastal absentees include Sarta, who had a separate treaty with the Allied Powers, Echia, who also had a separate treaty, but with Varkana. The only Allied absentee was Kastruneto who ended its involvement in the war with the Treaty of Klow.
The Communist Alliance and formerly associated members were not invited despite being major belligerents during the war and having signed the armistice. U/C
On DATE, Friedrich Weixler delivered a speech that declared the Breislandic peace objectives: the rebuilding of the Illypnian economy, self-determination of Illypnian, Near Eastern and Fosian ethnic groups, the promotion of free trade, and above all, the creation of a powerful Adonian Community that would ensure the peace. The aim of the latter was to provide a forum to revise the war's peace treaties as needed, and deal with problems that arose as a result of the peace and the rise of new states. Weixler also proposed a global ban on fascist and communist organizations, which was opposed by several states on sovereignty grounds.
Public opinion favored a "fast peace", with little consideration for territorial gains or the self-determination of people in far away lands. Breislandic media focused on clauses pertaining to Kalinova and wished to punish the latter for its aggressive policy that caused the most damage to Breisland itself. The Breislandic wanted a demilitarized zone along the Kalinovan border, which was supported by their Kalinovan counterparts (?). In August and September 1947, the Breislandic and Kalinovans held separate talks, on mutually acceptable arrangements on issues like demilitarized zones, reconstruction and industrial collaboration. In private Weixler opposed revenge and attempted to compromise between the Kalinovan demands and the Breislandic aims, because Breisland would eventually have to reconcile with Kalinova. Weixler saw a future Breislandic-Kalinovan Alliance as the most favorable outcome to deter Volisan imperialism and the expansion of communism from the Orient.
Manaa Kadar's aims at the Treaty of Koblenz were to project Burawa's newly found political power and establish the nation as the speaker for the affairs of all of Kaftia. Kadar had also attempted to further hamper Volisania's and power, but had limited victories in achieving that goal.
FF worked primarily to secure the partition of the Kandari Empire and their attitude towards other Coastal Powers was not as hostile. They wanted to annex the Parani-speaking lands previously held by the Kandari Empire, namely Saremia and parts of Lagash to have access to Harsalem. Their attempts at doing the aforementioned to the Parani-speaking land of communist Vasaras proved fruitless following the Treaty of Siavoshan which guaranteed the right to self-determination of the Vasari Parani-speaking minorities. The Parani imperialist aims were considerably unpopular among both Allied and Coastal Powers during negotiations which forced them to change their negotiating plans. While initially opposing the establishment of an international city in Harsalem and supporting the partition of the city into a Jewish side and a Muslim side, Paran grew to support the plan when they realized that Parani-speaking and predominantly-Muslim Eastern Lagash would be part of Lagash. Frustrated by the lack of support from its allies for its ambitions, Paran withdrew from the Peace Conference from August to November 1947. They returned in early November to sign the treaty after being given guarantees by Breisland of military support.
Zong prime minister Tan Sinchong, who is considered to be largely responsible for the start of the war, was reportedly optimistic with the negotiations considering Zong had satisfied most of its war aims despite the armistice. The Zong delegations – led by foreign minister DUDE – opposed any attempt at status quo ante bellum by the Allied Powers or its own Coastal allies. Zong was open to the recognition of the treaties of Castejon, Siavoshan and Klow and their international military tribunals by the Coastal Powers which were separately negotiated by the Allied Powers and other belligerents. The Zong aims on Illypnian affairs regarding the war were to not create an international law precedent that would negatively affect its aims in Fosia and to position itself in solidarity with its Volisan ally on other issues.
Its Fosian aims were the recognition of the independence of Marlika, Devalia, Balausia and other Breislandic colonies in Fosia. Zong wanted the immediate withdrawal of Breislandic troops on the Fosian continent. Tan hoped to fulfill his initial war intentions of removing communism in the continent by allying the Allied Fosian powers of Limonia, Fenia and Binguk to continue the war against the Communist Alliance led by Daras. However, several of his ministers opposed continuing the war even against the communists due to economic costs and public opinion. In the end, Tan judged that rebuilding the Zong economy would be the number one priority.
Tan supported the creation of the Adonian Community which he saw as a way to keep the Illypnians in check on their imperialist aspirations in Fosia. U/C
Adonian Community Charter
Creation of new sovereign states
East and West Lapland
The republic of Sarafone was established on the land formerly occupied by Volisanian Kaftia. The region of western Kaftia was still entrenched in a conflict at the time. None of the nations in western Kaftia were present at the conference to negotiate the terms of creating Sarafone. Burawa claimed to act on behalf of the region. Before the Great Adonian War, it was thought that the region of Sarafone would be divided into parts of Faheya, Dakare and Hansawia once Volisania had left.
Other territorial provisions
Reaction in Paran to the treaty was extremely negative.
The delegates of the Zong government had mixed thoughts on the treaty.