Treaty of Klow (1947)

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The Treaty of Klow, was signed on 18 July 1947 by the Allies of the Great Adonian War on the one hand and by the newly proclaimed Third Republic of Varkana on the other. The Treaty entered into force on 1 January 1948. According to Article 11 of the Treaty, Varkana accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for Varkana.

Negotiations

On 12 April 1943, a ten-man Varkan delegation sent by President Levan Gotua from Senaki went to the occupied Ritz Klow hotel and met Breislandic General Frießner and the Aetolian Ambassador ??? bringing with them a seven-point proposal for a peace treaty. Their position was to return to a status quo ante bellum. Frießner was astounded but forwarded the proposal to Koblenz, knowing it would not be accepted but wanted the dialogue between the two parties to continue. The Kastrunetian delegate ??? joined the negotiations on 14 April but he was hostile to the Communists and wanted an unconditional surrender. The Breislandic government rejected the Varkan terms and the Varkan delegation asked Frießner for an armistice so that they could return and consult with the politburo as to whether they could negotiate a surrender and its terms.

On 15 May, the Communist Party elected 30 delegates and they met in Chiatura. The debate was heated, split between the military establishment who wanted an end to the war as the logistic situation of the SS was becoming desperate with major lack of fuels while the leading party officials wished to continue the war. A compromise was reached and the delegation returned to Klow on 19 May with a proposal that Varkana remained communist, ended all hostilities with Allied Powers and granted independence to Svaneti.

The terms were rejected by Frießner and KASTRUNETIAN with the two of them disagreeing on the direction of the future, with the former seeking reconciliation and the latter seeking humiliation. The debate between the Varkan delegation and the Allied delegation would continue for days. The Varkans made concessions which included the promise of Allied monitored democratic elections. On 27 May 1943, the Breislandic Cabinet met to discuss the final terms of the treaty and on 28 May in Klow, the Varkans were presented with the terms and given three days to make a decision of which the answer required was either yes or no.

Thirty politburo and thirty SS delegates met in Chiatura to debate the terms of the treaty and a heated debate developed between President Levan Gotua and General Simon Kaukhchishvili, with the former arguing against the terms and the latter in favor. At around 14:00 on 31 May 1943 a vote was called and 32 delegates voted yes to the terms of the treaty but 28 voted no. On the same day the Varkan delegates returned to Klow at the Ritz and the peace treaty was signed.

Kastrunetian aims

As the only major Allied power at war with and sharing a land border with Varkana, Kastruneto was chiefly concerned with weakening Varkana as much as possible. The Kastrunetian Prime Minister ?? wished to bring the Kastrunetian border to the Kasus or to create a buffer state in the Kasus. The latter demand was favored by Breisland, Sarta and Aetolia, which ended up with the independence of Svaneti from Varkana as part of the treaty.

Kastruneto, which suffered significant destruction in its northern territories was adamant on the payment of reparations.

Aetolian aims

Aetolia looked on a restored Varkana as an important trading partner and worried about the effect of reparations on the Aetolian economy. As such, it opposed any sort of reparations.

Breislandic aims

Breislandic prime minister ?? aimed for quick negotiations, as to create a separate peace which would dismantle the Communist Alliance in Illypnia. Breisland opposed war reparations, hoping the new non-Communist Varkan government would join the war alongside the Allied Powers and use its intelligence network to fight the Coastal Powers.

Terms

Territorial changes

The treaty stripped Varkana of 76,695 square kilometers of territory, which became the Republic of Svaneti. Varkana had to recognize the independence of Svaneti and renounce "all rights and title over the territory".

Military clauses

The treaty was comprehensive in the restrictions imposed upon the post-war Varkan armed forces (the SS). The provisions were intended to encourage international disarmament, especially regarding chemical weapons. Varkana was to destroy all of its chemical weapons by 1958. Additionally, conscription was to be permanently abolished.

Political clauses

Breisland was to occupy Varkana until the election of a President and Parliament through free and fair multi-party elections.

International organizations

Varkana was to immediately leave the Communist Alliance and any other hostile organization to the Allied Powers.

Article 14 stipulated a general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. This was the basis of the foundation of the Adonian Community in 1948.

Reactions

Among the allies

Aetolia

U/C

Breisland

Breislandic prime minister Friedrich Weixler was happy with the treaty, and the Breislandic government signed and ratified it. The treaty met all the Breislandic aims. U/C

Kastruneto

Reaction in Kastruneto to the treaty was extremely negative. The country had suffered high casualties to Varkana, yet failed to achieve most of its major negotiation goals, notably receiving war reparations. In the end, Kastruneto ratified the treaty, but got little out of the war, which cost more than #### Kastrunetian troops and as many as #### citizens their lives.

In Varkana

The general feeling of the Varkan population was contempt towards the Allied Powers, as several leaders of the Communist Party were arrested and tried during the Klow Trials for war crimes during the occupation. Communists, nationalists and some ex-military leaders condemned the treaty. Politicians of the Third Republic who supported the treaty, conservatives, liberals, and religious minorities were viewed with suspicion as persons of questionable loyalty. After his election as President, Giuli Alasania supported the treaty.