|Varkan Military Intelligence|
|საქართველოს სამხედრო დაზვერვის|
sakartvelos samkhedro dazvervis
|Jurisdiction||Government of Varkana|
7th District, Klow, Varkana
|Annual budget||1.121 billion lari (2016)|
|Minister responsible||Akaki Asatiani, Secretary of Defense|
|Agency executive||Eteri Amirejibi, Agency Chief|
|Parent agency||Secretariat of Defense|
The SSD, an initialism for sakartvelos samkhedro dazvervis (Varkan: საქართველოს სამხედრო დაზვერვის (სსდ); translated as Varkan Military Intelligence) is the intelligence and security agency of Varkana. It is responsible for collecting, analyzing, reporting and disseminating intelligence on threats to Varkana's national security, and conducting operations, covert and overt, within Varkana and abroad. It also reports to and advises the Presidency on national security issues and situations that threaten the security of the nation.
Its headquarters are located in Klow in the Falasi Fortress. SSD is directly responsible to the Presidency, but is also overseen by the Constitutional Council and the Committee on Security Intelligence.
- 1 History
- 2 Headquarters
- 3 Domestic operations
- 4 Foreign operations
- 5 Chiefs
- 6 See also
The SSD was founded in 1886, by Varkan communist authorities. The SSD was a joint initiative of the Communist Party and the Military to control secret intelligence operations in Varkana and overseas, particularly concentrating on the anti-communist activities of foreign countries in Varkan territory. The SSD was split into naval and army sections which, over time, specialized in foreign espionage and internal counter-espionage activities respectively. This specialization was because the Communist Party wanted to know the anti-communist political movements inside Varkana. This specialization was formalized before the Great Adonian War and took formal shape as the sapo, established in 1910.
Great Adonian War
During the Great Adonian War, cooperation with Vasaras and other communist countries intelligence agencies became vital for secret military operations. Varkan agents successfully infiltrated enemy agencies, but the SSD was also fed with false information by enemy agencies. Despite these difficulties the SSD nevertheless conducted substantial and successful operations in Illypnia, Kaftia and Fosia.
After the Varkan revolution, the Varkan government decided to relocate the SSD offices from Gali back to the Falasi Fortress. The move took six years and was eventually completed in 2006, with the fortress completely renovated and functional. On 1 January 2006, Giorgi Latso became SSD Chief, succeeding the retiring Anna Zhvania who had served from 13 April 1993. Latso presided over several major reforms of the SSD, most of which are classified. According to former President Zurab Avalishvili, Latso "changed everything" and Avalishvili is "not even aware of what [Latso] did exactly." On 5 December, 2013, the SSD issued an unclassified edition a statement by the SSD Chief Antoniu Rikovilo as a press release for the public. The press release announced the establishment of a new directorate, the 11th Directorate, which is responsible for designing and crafting the digital technology to be used by the SSD, to keep Varkana always ahead of its enemies. The 11th Directorate will also train SSD staff in the use of this technology, to prepare the SSD for the future, and it will also use the technological revolution to deal with cyber-terrorism and other perceived threats. The directorate will be the chief cyber-espionage arm of the SSD going forward, and will work alongside the Cyber Forces.
With the appointment of Giorgi Latso as SSD Chief in 2006, a leading political figure in the AAP and former member of the government, President Avalishvili was criticized by opposing parties for "making the SSD an intelligence agency of the AAP." Avalishvili strongly condemned the opposing parties' accusations, calling them "unfounded and dangerous." He further claimed the opposing parties are "becoming paranoid and are showing their true colors as mythomaniacs, further proving their lack of credibility."
According to former employees and foreign reports, Latso purged several anti-AAP staff from the agency, replacing around 40% of all SSD staff with AAP faithfuls. Evgeni Kharadze, a leading human rights activist in Varkana, claims that Latso controlled the presidency during his tenure as SSD Chief and Avalishvili was his puppet. Avalishvili threatened to sue Kharadze for slander, but never did. Following Latso's election as President, Kharadze further commented that Latso infiltrated the Varkan government with staff loyal to him at a level almost similar to that of Levan Gotua, in preparation for him to officially take power and become President. Latso retorted by accusing Kharadze of being a conspiracy theorist being manipulated by "Breislandic propaganda".
The Falasi Fortress (Varkan: პალასი ციხესიმაგრე, p'alasi ts'ikhesimagre) has been the SSD headquarters since 1886. Located north of the Old Port in the 7th District of Klow. Located only 200 meters southeast of the Presidential Palace, both buildings are connected by an underground tunnel. It was built from 1660 to 1664 to calm the commune's spirit of independence, ordered by the Dinaric monarchy.
During the Varkan Restoration War, the presence of the Giorgi, Falasi and Dedamitsaze fortresses worried because some people thought their commanders were accumulating ammunition. On 30 April 1760 the general council of the commune arrived at the door of the fortress. The commander of the fort, thinking that his little regiment would be defecting, signed a compromise whereby he would let in every day as many National Guards there were soldiers of service.
Following various incidents, the crowd began on July 28, 1760 the destruction of the eastern part of the monument, considered a symbol of despotism, but the National Assembly keen to maintain a useful book for the defense of the new capital, ordered to stop demolition of the fortress by decree of 5 August 1760. In 1833, the commune did restore demolished portions but this restoration was done with poor quality greyish stone cutting sharply with non destroyed parts made of pink stones crown cap.
To link the Old Port to the Presidential Palace which was only accessible by a few streets, the commune voted on April 18, 1860 the opening of a road, currently boulevard Ana Kalanda. The retaining walls of the trench made for the passage of this new path are made of white urgonian limestone, quite different than the much pink stones of the crown cap used for the construction of the fortress. The massive building was now divided into two independent parts.
After the January Revolution, the new communist government established the SSD in 1886, choosing the fortress as headquarters. Following the years, and the arrival of electricity, lighting, telephone and other technologies, the fortress had major renovations. After the Great Adonian War, the building was abandoned by the third republic government and the SSD's headquarters were relocated in Gali. After the Varkan revolution, the SSD returned to the Falasi Fortress in its pre-GAW state. Major restructuring and new design took place from 2000 to 2006, and the fortress is now extremely modern despite its exterior and interior looks.
In 2016, the SSD said it had exposed 51 foreign spies, including 11 professional spies and 40 agents employed by foreign intelligence services. The number has risen in recent years: in 2010 the SSD reportedly caught about 8 foreign intelligence officers and 23 foreign agents. U/C
In 2016, the SSD prevented 24 "crimes of a terrorist nature", including two terrorist attacks. In particular, the agency foiled a planned mass shooting in Klow on New Year's Eve. However, the agency failed to prevent terrorists perpetrating the Some bombing. U/C
Claims of intimidation of foreign diplomats, journalists and activists
The SSD has been accused by Bechdvit of using psychological techniques to intimidate foreign diplomatic staff, both foreign and Varkan journalists, and opposition activists. The techniques allegedly involve entering targets' houses, moving household items around, replacing items with similar (but slightly different) items, and even sending sex toys to a target's spouse, all with the intention of confusing and scaring the target. The technique described correspond to the Zersetzung tactic used by the Wolffrean ????. The head of the Monitor of Human Rights in Varkana, Evgeni Kharadze, claims to have been the subject of such techniques.
In August 2009, Senator Mevlud Tsaguria accused the SSD of "hoarding information about people who pose no danger to this country", after it emerged that SSD holds secret files on 155,000 individuals — equivalent to one in 150 adults.
- Collection of information and extraction of intelligence from information
- SSD obtains information critical to Varkana's strategic interests. Both overt and covert means are adopted.
- Classification of intelligence
- Data is sifted through, classified as appropriate, and filed with the assistance of the computer network in SSD's headquarters in Klow.
- Aggressive intelligence
- The primary mission of SSD includes aggressive intelligence which comprises espionage, psychological warfare, subversion, sabotage.
- SSD has a dedicated section which spies against enemy's intelligence collection.
- Diplomatic missions provide an ideal cover and SSD centers in a target country are generally located on the embassy premises.
- SSD operatives find good covers in multinational organizations. Non-governmental organizations and cultural programmes are also popular screens to shield SSD activities.
- International media centers can easily absorb SSD operatives and provide freedom of movement.
- Collaboration with other agencies
- SSD maintains active collaboration with other secret services in various countries. Its contacts with the OYP, Wolffrean Intelligence and Junqing have been well known.
- Third Country Technique
- SSD has been active in obtaining information and operating through third countries like Echia, Kastruneto and Svaneti.
- The SSD trained and supplied in weapons the Armazist Guard in Kastruneto to attack the government during the Kastrunetian Civil War from 1985 until 1989.
- The SSD is alleged to be responsible for the killing of Sartan engineer and ballistics expert Ignacio Manuel Varela on February 16, 1987. He was shot multiple times in the head outside his Dertosa apartment. Varela was at the time working for Kastruneto on the Project. Others, including ??'s son, believe that the SSD is taking credit for an act they did not commit to scare off others who may try to help enemy countries. The alternative theory is that Varela was killed by the Volisan intelligence. Aetolia and Kastruneto are also candidates for suspicion.
- The SSD helped Aetolian counterparts in suppressing the 1990 Race Riots in Lefki and the growing Mesonjean separatist movement.
- In 2007, the SSD was credited for liberating two Varkan journalists who were held as hostages for 113 days in war-torn country.
- In December 2014, the SSD used an undercover agent to lure Juansher Dodashvili from Breisland to Echia in a honey trap style operation where he was abducted and returned to Varkana where he was tried and found guilty of treason because of his role in exposing the Varkan chemical weapons program.
- In March 2015 an employee of the Adonian Community was arrested for handing over secret documents to the SSD. He was suspected of handing over documents about the findings of the team of AC investigators investigating the presence of chemical weapon stockpiles in Varkana. Both the SSD and the Presidential Office have denied any involvement.
- In February 2016, Bechdvit reported that an allegedly SSD-trained Parani citizen had been apprehended as part of a plot to assassinate Yassin bin Hussein al-Bayt, the Parani Caliph. Both the SSD and the Presidential Office have denied any involvement.
- 1886–88: Eka Zguladze
- 1888–94: David Nikuradze
- 1894–99: Manana Kobakhidze
- 1899–1904: Evgen Gvaladze
- 1904–08: Naira Gelashvili
- 1908–14: Salome Tamarishvili
- 1914–16: Levan Gotua
- 1916–19: Vasil Tsereteli
- 1919–43: Kita Abashidze
- 1943–49: Lana Gogoberidze
- 1949–53: Sofia Shevardnadze
- 1953–61: Henri Kuprashvili
- 1961–68: Nino Burjanadze
- 1968–71: Sozar Subari
- 1971–84: Khatuna Kalmakhelidze
- 1984–89: Zakaria Chichinadze
- 1989–93: Iza Orjonikidze
- 1993–05: Ana Zhvania
- 2006–12: Giorgi Latso
- 2013–18: Antoniu Rikovilo
- 2019–Present: Eteri Amirejibi