Globalization and World Cities Research Network

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The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank based in the Geography department at Koblenz University in Breisland, that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

The GaWC examines cities worldwide to narrow them down to a roster of 500 world cities, then ranks these based on their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertizing, banking/finance, and law. The GaWC inventory ranks city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. Beyond the categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories) and "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories), the GaWC cities include additional cities at "High sufficiency" and "Sufficiency" level.

The GaWC global cities according to the 2014 study:

Alpha++ Alpha+ Alpha Alpha-
Volisania Ampuria Bayara Castejón Kastruneto Botão Template:Country data SWNW TBD Skade Amundsen Zong Kimsa Aetolia Skopelos
Breisland Koblenz Zong Gudong Echia Capua Fenia Nanpin Template:Country data THA Bangkok Varkana Klow Tortona Tortona
Zong Huwei Sarta Dertosa Template:Country data Western Irish Western Irish Capital Template:Country data SPA Barcelona Monsora Massè Volisania Vesona
Kalinova Malynohorod Orma Dirranmoticha Volisania Sabaria Template:Country data USA Boston Template:Country data GER Munich Template:Country data POL Warsaw
Aetolia Palaiochori Burawa Iskhal Breisland Salzgitter Kalinova Cherniv Template:Country data IND New Delhi Template:Country data USA Washington
Hitani Hitani LAC Daras Luanjing Breisland Cottbus Template:Country data CZE Prague Template:Country data SWI Zurich
Breisland Siegen Lagash Marqash Template:Country data TUR Istanbul Breisland Hildesheim
Limonia Xinkan Template:Country data SWNW TBD Breisland Jena Template:Country data KOR Seoul

Beta level cities are the 78 cities that link moderate economic regions into the world economy.

Beta+ Beta Beta-
Template:Country data GRC Athens Template:Country data USA Dallas Zong Makeng Template:Country data NZL Auckland Template:Country data VNM Ho Chi Minh City Template:Country data JOR Amman Template:Country data USA Cleveland Template:Country data FRA Lyon Template:Country data ECU Quito
Template:Country data IND Bangalore Template:Country data GER Düsseldorf Template:Country data CAN Montreal Template:Country data COL Bogota Varkana Kaspi Template:Country data BEL Antwerp Template:Country data USA Denver Template:Country data BHR Manama Template:Country data LVA Riga
Template:Country data HUN Budapest Template:Country data PRC Guangzhou Template:Country data USA Philadelphia Template:Country data AUS Brisbane Template:Country data UK Manchester Template:Country data UAE Abu Dhabi Template:Country data USA Detroit Template:Country data USA Minneapolis Template:Country data NED Rotterdam
Template:Country data DNK Copenhagen Template:Country data GER Hamburg Template:Country data ITA Rome Template:Country data VEN Caracas Template:Country data URY Montevideo Template:Country data KAZ Almaty Template:Country data UK Edinburgh Template:Country data MEX Monterrey Template:Country data USA San Diego
Template:Country data LBN Beirut Template:Country data USA Houston Template:Country data CHL Santiago Template:Country data MAR Casablanca Template:Country data NOR Oslo Template:Country data SRB Belgrade Template:Country data GTM Guatemala City Template:Country data KEN Nairobi Template:Country data CRI San Jose
Template:Country data GER Berlin Template:Country data UKR Kiev Template:Country data ISR Tel Aviv Template:Country data IND Chennai Template:Country data BRA Rio de Janeiro Template:Country data UK Birmingham (UK) Template:Country data VNM Hanoi Template:Country data CYP Nicosia Varkana Senaki
Template:Country data ROU Bucharest Template:Country data PER Lima Template:Country data QAT Doha Template:Country data SAU Riyadh Template:Country data SVK Bratislava Template:Country data IND Hyderabad Template:Country data AUS Perth Template:Country data PRC Shenzhen
Template:Country data EGY Cairo Template:Country data PRT Lisbon Template:Country data CHE Geneva Template:Country data GER Stuttgart Template:Country data IND Calcutta Template:Country data KWT Kuwait City Template:Country data MUS Port Louis Template:Country data BGR Sofia
Template:Country data ZAF Cape Town Template:Country data LUX Luxembourg Template:Country data FIN Helsinki Template:Country data CAN Vancouver Template:Country data CAN Calgary Template:Country data NGA Lagos Template:Country data PAN Panama City Template:Country data TUN Tunis

Gamma level cities are the 59 cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy.

Gamma+ Gamma Gamma-
Template:Country data AUS Adelaide Template:Country data JPN Osaka Template:Country data TUR Ankara Template:Country data OMN Muscat Template:Country data GHA Accra Template:Country data SWE Malmö
Template:Country data USA Baltimore Template:Country data USA Phoenix Template:Country data AZE Baku Template:Country data USA Raleigh Template:Country data IND Ahmedabad Template:Country data NIC Managua
Template:Country data UK Bristol Template:Country data SLV San Salvador Template:Country data UK Belfast Template:Country data USA San Jose Template:Country data DZA Algiers Template:Country data FRA Nantes
Template:Country data USA Charlotte Template:Country data DOM Santo Domingo Template:Country data USA Cincinnati Template:Country data PRI San Juan Template:Country data PRY Ascunsión Template:Country data USA Orlando
Template:Country data GER Cologne Template:Country data USA St Louis Template:Country data LKA Colombo Template:Country data EST Tallinn Template:Country data USA Columbus Template:Country data USA Portland
Template:Country data ZAF Durban Template:Country data RUS St Petersburg Template:Country data UK Glasgow Template:Country data SPA Valencia Template:Country data TZA Dar es Salaam Template:Country data PRT Porto
Template:Country data CYM Georgetown Template:Country data USA Tampa Template:Country data MEX Guadalajara Template:Country data LTU Vilnius Template:Country data SWE Gothenburg Template:Country data IND Pune
Template:Country data ECU Guayaquil Template:Country data HRV Zagreb Template:Country data UK Leeds Template:Country data USA Kansas City Template:Country data SPA Seville
Template:Country data PAK Islamabad Template:Country data SVN Ljubljana Template:Country data POL Cracow Template:Country data PRC Tianjin
Template:Country data SAU Jeddah Template:Country data FRA Marseille Template:Country data BOL La Paz Template:Country data ITA Turin
Template:Country data PAK Lahore Template:Country data USA Milwaukee Template:Country data GER Leipzig Template:Country data NED Utrecht

High Sufficiency level cities are the 41 cities that have a high degree of accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law services so as not to be dependent on world cities.

High Sufficiency
Template:Country data CIV Abidjan Template:Country data CMR Douala Template:Country data CHE Lausanne Template:Country data BRA Porto Alegre Template:Country data HON Tegucigalpa
Template:Country data USA Austin Template:Country data GER Dresden Template:Country data FRA Lille Template:Country data POL Poznan Template:Country data MEX Tijuana
Template:Country data BRA Belo Horizonte Template:Country data CAN Edmonton Template:Country data ZMB Lusaka Template:Country data PRC Qingdao Template:Country data ALB Tirana
Template:Country data SPA Bilbao Template:Country data BWA Gaborone Template:Country data PRC Nanjing Template:Country data MEX Querétaro Template:Country data NZL Wellington
Template:Country data PRC Chengdu Template:Country data NED The Hague Template:Country data BHS Nassau Template:Country data USA Richmond Template:Country data POL Wroclaw
Template:Country data PRC Chongqing Template:Country data PRC Hangzhou Template:Country data UK Newcastle Template:Country data USA Salt Lake City
Template:Country data BRA Curitiba Template:Country data USA Hartford Template:Country data GER Nürnberg Template:Country data MKD Skopje
Template:Country data SEN Dakar Template:Country data USA Indianapolis Template:Country data CAN Ottawa Template:Country data UK Southampton
Template:Country data BGD Dhaka Template:Country data UGA Kampala Template:Country data USA Pittsburgh Template:Country data FRA Strasbourg

Sufficiency level cities are the 84 cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be obviously dependent on world cities.

Sufficiency
Template:Country data UK Aberdeen Template:Country data IND Cebu Template:Country data CAN Halifax Template:Country data UK Liverpool Template:Country data FRA Nice Template:Country data USA San Antonio
Template:Country data NGA Abuja Template:Country data MEX Ciudad Juarez Template:Country data NZL Hamilton Template:Country data ANG Luanda Template:Country data UK Nottingham Template:Country data ESP Santa Cruz
Template:Country data EGY Alexandria Template:Country data MDA Chisinau Template:Country data GER Hannover Template:Country data GER Ludwigshafen Template:Country data MYS Penang Template:Country data UK Sheffield
Template:Country data DEN Arhus Template:Country data NZL Christchurch Template:Country data ZWE Harare Template:Country data MAC Macao Template:Country data KHM Phnom Penh Template:Country data IDN Surabaya
Template:Country data CHE Bern Template:Country data ESP Cordoba Template:Country data TUR Izmir Template:Country data USA Madison (WI) Template:Country data TTO Port of Spain Template:Country data UZB Tashkent
Template:Country data USA Birmingham (AL ) Template:Country data PRC Dalian Template:Country data USA Jacksonville Mesogean Cooperation Organization Maputo Template:Country data ZAF Pretoria Template:Country data GEO Tbilisi
Template:Country data ITA Bologna Template:Country data SAU Dammam Template:Country data ISR Jerusalem Template:Country data COL Medellin Template:Country data USA Providence (RI) Template:Country data FRA Toulouse
Template:Country data FRA Bordeaux Template:Country data USA Des Moines Template:Country data MYS Johor Bahru Template:Country data USA Memphis (TN) Template:Country data MEX Puebla Template:Country data USA Tulsa
Template:Country data BRA Brasilia Template:Country data ITA Florence Template:Country data TWN Kaohsiung Template:Country data BLR Minsk Template:Country data KOR Pusan Template:Country data NAM Windhoek
Template:Country data GER Bremen Template:Country data JPN Fukuoka Template:Country data JAM Kingston Template:Country data FRA Montpellier Template:Country data BRA Recife Template:Country data CAN Winnipeg
Template:Country data COL Cali Template:Country data ITA Genoa Template:Country data MYS Labuan Template:Country data JPN Nagoya Template:Country data ISL Reykjavik Template:Country data PRC Wuhan
Template:Country data BRA Campinas Template:Country data AUT Graz Template:Country data USA Las Vegas Template:Country data ITA Naples Template:Country data USA Rochester (NY) Template:Country data PRC Xiamen
Template:Country data AUS Canberra Template:Country data USA Greensboro Template:Country data SPA Leon Template:Country data USA Nashville (TN) Template:Country data USA Sacramento Template:Country data PRC Xi'an
Template:Country data UK Cardiff Template:Country data ISR Haifa Template:Country data AUT Linz Template:Country data USA New Orleans Template:Country data BRA Salvador Template:Country data ARM Yerevan