Globalization and World Cities Research Network

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The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank based in the Geography department at Koblenz University in Breisland, that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.

The GaWC examines cities worldwide to narrow them down to a roster of 500 world cities, then ranks these based on their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertizing, banking/finance, and law. The GaWC inventory ranks city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. Beyond the categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories) and "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories), the GaWC cities include additional cities at "High sufficiency" and "Sufficiency" level.

The GaWC global cities according to the 2014 study:

Alpha++ Alpha+ Alpha Alpha-
Volisania Ampuria Bayara Castejón Kastruneto Botão Template:Country data SWNWTemplate:Namespace detect showall TBD Skade Amundsen Zong Kimsa Aetolia Skopelos
Breisland Koblenz Zong Gudong Echia Capua Fenia Nanpin Template:Country data THATemplate:Namespace detect showall Bangkok Varkana Klow Tortona Tortona
Zong Huwei Sarta Dertosa Template:Country data Western IrishTemplate:Namespace detect showall Western Irish Capital Template:Country data SPATemplate:Namespace detect showall Barcelona Monsora Massè Volisania Vesona
Kalinova Malynohorod Orma Dirranmoticha Volisania Sabaria Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Boston Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Munich Template:Country data POLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Warsaw
Aetolia Palaiochori Burawa Iskhal Breisland Salzgitter Kalinova Cherniv Template:Country data INDTemplate:Namespace detect showall New Delhi Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Washington
Hitani Hitani LAC Daras Luanjing Breisland Cottbus Template:Country data CZETemplate:Namespace detect showall Prague Template:Country data SWITemplate:Namespace detect showall Zurich
Breisland Siegen Lagash Marqash Template:Country data TURTemplate:Namespace detect showall Istanbul Breisland Hildesheim
Limonia Xinkan Template:Country data SWNWTemplate:Namespace detect showall TBD Breisland Jena Template:Country data KORTemplate:Namespace detect showall Seoul

Beta level cities are the 78 cities that link moderate economic regions into the world economy.

Beta+ Beta Beta-
Template:Country data GRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Athens Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Dallas Zong Makeng Template:Country data NZLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Auckland Template:Country data VNMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Ho Chi Minh City Template:Country data JORTemplate:Namespace detect showall Amman Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Cleveland Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Lyon Template:Country data ECUTemplate:Namespace detect showall Quito
Template:Country data INDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Bangalore Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Düsseldorf Template:Country data CANTemplate:Namespace detect showall Montreal Template:Country data COLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Bogota Varkana Kaspi Template:Country data BELTemplate:Namespace detect showall Antwerp Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Denver Template:Country data BHRTemplate:Namespace detect showall Manama Template:Country data LVATemplate:Namespace detect showall Riga
Template:Country data HUNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Budapest Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Guangzhou Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Philadelphia Template:Country data AUSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Brisbane Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Manchester Template:Country data UAETemplate:Namespace detect showall Abu Dhabi Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Detroit Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Minneapolis Template:Country data NEDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Rotterdam
Template:Country data DNKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Copenhagen Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Hamburg Template:Country data ITATemplate:Namespace detect showall Rome Template:Country data VENTemplate:Namespace detect showall Caracas Template:Country data URYTemplate:Namespace detect showall Montevideo Template:Country data KAZTemplate:Namespace detect showall Almaty Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Edinburgh Template:Country data MEXTemplate:Namespace detect showall Monterrey Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall San Diego
Template:Country data LBNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Beirut Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Houston Template:Country data CHLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Santiago Template:Country data MARTemplate:Namespace detect showall Casablanca Template:Country data NORTemplate:Namespace detect showall Oslo Template:Country data SRBTemplate:Namespace detect showall Belgrade Template:Country data GTMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Guatemala City Template:Country data KENTemplate:Namespace detect showall Nairobi Template:Country data CRITemplate:Namespace detect showall San Jose
Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Berlin Template:Country data UKRTemplate:Namespace detect showall Kiev Template:Country data ISRTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tel Aviv Template:Country data INDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Chennai Template:Country data BRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Rio de Janeiro Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Birmingham (UK) Template:Country data VNMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Hanoi Template:Country data CYPTemplate:Namespace detect showall Nicosia Varkana Senaki
Template:Country data ROUTemplate:Namespace detect showall Bucharest Template:Country data PERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Lima Template:Country data QATTemplate:Namespace detect showall Doha Template:Country data SAUTemplate:Namespace detect showall Riyadh Template:Country data SVKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Bratislava Template:Country data INDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Hyderabad Template:Country data AUSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Perth Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Shenzhen
Template:Country data EGYTemplate:Namespace detect showall Cairo Template:Country data PRTTemplate:Namespace detect showall Lisbon Template:Country data CHETemplate:Namespace detect showall Geneva Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Stuttgart Template:Country data INDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Calcutta Template:Country data KWTTemplate:Namespace detect showall Kuwait City Template:Country data MUSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Port Louis Template:Country data BGRTemplate:Namespace detect showall Sofia
Template:Country data ZAFTemplate:Namespace detect showall Cape Town Template:Country data LUXTemplate:Namespace detect showall Luxembourg Template:Country data FINTemplate:Namespace detect showall Helsinki Template:Country data CANTemplate:Namespace detect showall Vancouver Template:Country data CANTemplate:Namespace detect showall Calgary Template:Country data NGATemplate:Namespace detect showall Lagos Template:Country data PANTemplate:Namespace detect showall Panama City Template:Country data TUNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tunis

Gamma level cities are the 59 cities that link smaller economic regions into the world economy.

Gamma+ Gamma Gamma-
Template:Country data AUSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Adelaide Template:Country data JPNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Osaka Template:Country data TURTemplate:Namespace detect showall Ankara Template:Country data OMNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Muscat Template:Country data GHATemplate:Namespace detect showall Accra Template:Country data SWETemplate:Namespace detect showall Malmö
Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Baltimore Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Phoenix Template:Country data AZETemplate:Namespace detect showall Baku Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Raleigh Template:Country data INDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Ahmedabad Template:Country data NICTemplate:Namespace detect showall Managua
Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Bristol Template:Country data SLVTemplate:Namespace detect showall San Salvador Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Belfast Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall San Jose Template:Country data DZATemplate:Namespace detect showall Algiers Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Nantes
Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Charlotte Template:Country data DOMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Santo Domingo Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Cincinnati Template:Country data PRITemplate:Namespace detect showall San Juan Template:Country data PRYTemplate:Namespace detect showall Ascunsión Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Orlando
Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Cologne Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall St Louis Template:Country data LKATemplate:Namespace detect showall Colombo Template:Country data ESTTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tallinn Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Columbus Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Portland
Template:Country data ZAFTemplate:Namespace detect showall Durban Template:Country data RUSTemplate:Namespace detect showall St Petersburg Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Glasgow Template:Country data SPATemplate:Namespace detect showall Valencia Template:Country data TZATemplate:Namespace detect showall Dar es Salaam Template:Country data PRTTemplate:Namespace detect showall Porto
Template:Country data CYMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Georgetown Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Tampa Template:Country data MEXTemplate:Namespace detect showall Guadalajara Template:Country data LTUTemplate:Namespace detect showall Vilnius Template:Country data SWETemplate:Namespace detect showall Gothenburg Template:Country data INDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Pune
Template:Country data ECUTemplate:Namespace detect showall Guayaquil Template:Country data HRVTemplate:Namespace detect showall Zagreb Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Leeds Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Kansas City Template:Country data SPATemplate:Namespace detect showall Seville
Template:Country data PAKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Islamabad Template:Country data SVNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Ljubljana Template:Country data POLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Cracow Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tianjin
Template:Country data SAUTemplate:Namespace detect showall Jeddah Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Marseille Template:Country data BOLTemplate:Namespace detect showall La Paz Template:Country data ITATemplate:Namespace detect showall Turin
Template:Country data PAKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Lahore Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Milwaukee Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Leipzig Template:Country data NEDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Utrecht

High Sufficiency level cities are the 41 cities that have a high degree of accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law services so as not to be dependent on world cities.

High Sufficiency
Template:Country data CIVTemplate:Namespace detect showall Abidjan Template:Country data CMRTemplate:Namespace detect showall Douala Template:Country data CHETemplate:Namespace detect showall Lausanne Template:Country data BRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Porto Alegre Template:Country data HONTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tegucigalpa
Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Austin Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Dresden Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Lille Template:Country data POLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Poznan Template:Country data MEXTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tijuana
Template:Country data BRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Belo Horizonte Template:Country data CANTemplate:Namespace detect showall Edmonton Template:Country data ZMBTemplate:Namespace detect showall Lusaka Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Qingdao Template:Country data ALBTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tirana
Template:Country data SPATemplate:Namespace detect showall Bilbao Template:Country data BWATemplate:Namespace detect showall Gaborone Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Nanjing Template:Country data MEXTemplate:Namespace detect showall Querétaro Template:Country data NZLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Wellington
Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Chengdu Template:Country data NEDTemplate:Namespace detect showall The Hague Template:Country data BHSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Nassau Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Richmond Template:Country data POLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Wroclaw
Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Chongqing Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Hangzhou Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Newcastle Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Salt Lake City
Template:Country data BRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Curitiba Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Hartford Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Nürnberg Template:Country data MKDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Skopje
Template:Country data SENTemplate:Namespace detect showall Dakar Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Indianapolis Template:Country data CANTemplate:Namespace detect showall Ottawa Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Southampton
Template:Country data BGDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Dhaka Template:Country data UGATemplate:Namespace detect showall Kampala Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Pittsburgh Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Strasbourg

Sufficiency level cities are the 84 cities that have a sufficient degree of services so as not to be obviously dependent on world cities.

Sufficiency
Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Aberdeen Template:Country data INDTemplate:Namespace detect showall Cebu Template:Country data CANTemplate:Namespace detect showall Halifax Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Liverpool Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Nice Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall San Antonio
Template:Country data NGATemplate:Namespace detect showall Abuja Template:Country data MEXTemplate:Namespace detect showall Ciudad Juarez Template:Country data NZLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Hamilton Template:Country data ANGTemplate:Namespace detect showall Luanda Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Nottingham Template:Country data ESPTemplate:Namespace detect showall Santa Cruz
Template:Country data EGYTemplate:Namespace detect showall Alexandria Template:Country data MDATemplate:Namespace detect showall Chisinau Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Hannover Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Ludwigshafen Template:Country data MYSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Penang Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Sheffield
Template:Country data DENTemplate:Namespace detect showall Arhus Template:Country data NZLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Christchurch Template:Country data ZWETemplate:Namespace detect showall Harare Template:Country data MACTemplate:Namespace detect showall Macao Template:Country data KHMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Phnom Penh Template:Country data IDNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Surabaya
Template:Country data CHETemplate:Namespace detect showall Bern Template:Country data ESPTemplate:Namespace detect showall Cordoba Template:Country data TURTemplate:Namespace detect showall Izmir Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Madison (WI) Template:Country data TTOTemplate:Namespace detect showall Port of Spain Template:Country data UZBTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tashkent
Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Birmingham (AL ) Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Dalian Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Jacksonville Mesogean Cooperation Organization Maputo Template:Country data ZAFTemplate:Namespace detect showall Pretoria Template:Country data GEOTemplate:Namespace detect showall Tbilisi
Template:Country data ITATemplate:Namespace detect showall Bologna Template:Country data SAUTemplate:Namespace detect showall Dammam Template:Country data ISRTemplate:Namespace detect showall Jerusalem Template:Country data COLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Medellin Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Providence (RI) Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Toulouse
Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Bordeaux Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Des Moines Template:Country data MYSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Johor Bahru Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Memphis (TN) Template:Country data MEXTemplate:Namespace detect showall Puebla Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Tulsa
Template:Country data BRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Brasilia Template:Country data ITATemplate:Namespace detect showall Florence Template:Country data TWNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Kaohsiung Template:Country data BLRTemplate:Namespace detect showall Minsk Template:Country data KORTemplate:Namespace detect showall Pusan Template:Country data NAMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Windhoek
Template:Country data GERTemplate:Namespace detect showall Bremen Template:Country data JPNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Fukuoka Template:Country data JAMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Kingston Template:Country data FRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Montpellier Template:Country data BRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Recife Template:Country data CANTemplate:Namespace detect showall Winnipeg
Template:Country data COLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Cali Template:Country data ITATemplate:Namespace detect showall Genoa Template:Country data MYSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Labuan Template:Country data JPNTemplate:Namespace detect showall Nagoya Template:Country data ISLTemplate:Namespace detect showall Reykjavik Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Wuhan
Template:Country data BRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Campinas Template:Country data AUTTemplate:Namespace detect showall Graz Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Las Vegas Template:Country data ITATemplate:Namespace detect showall Naples Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Rochester (NY) Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Xiamen
Template:Country data AUSTemplate:Namespace detect showall Canberra Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Greensboro Template:Country data SPATemplate:Namespace detect showall Leon Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Nashville (TN) Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall Sacramento Template:Country data PRCTemplate:Namespace detect showall Xi'an
Template:Country data UKTemplate:Namespace detect showall Cardiff Template:Country data ISRTemplate:Namespace detect showall Haifa Template:Country data AUTTemplate:Namespace detect showall Linz Template:Country data USATemplate:Namespace detect showall New Orleans Template:Country data BRATemplate:Namespace detect showall Salvador Template:Country data ARMTemplate:Namespace detect showall Yerevan