Burawa

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Burawa Republic
Jamhuuriyadda Buurawat
Flag of Burawa coat of arms of Buurawa
Flag coat of arms
Motto: Oo nimankaas oo dhammu ka adkaan doonaan
All Men Shall Prevail
Anthem: Tani waa sanqadha dadkeenna
CapitalKankadadka
Largest city Iskhal
Official languages Burawi
Recognised regional languages Iraqw, Sabi, Kushiti, Karamojong
Ethnic groups (2015)
Demonym Burawi
Government Unitary Kadarist Socialist Republic
 -  Maamulaha Bartamaha Marik Sahamin
 -  Prime Minister Yeur Eciidda
Legislature Baarlamaanka Dadka
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house People's Guard
Formation of the Second Republic
 -  First Unification 8 March 1832 
 -  Reorganized 22 July 1925 
 -  Current Constitution 22 July 2005 
Area
 -  934,293 km2 (45th)
360,732.544 sq mi
Population
 -  2017 estimate 116,255,055 (13th)
 -  2015 census 115,969,721
 -  Density 124.13/km2
321.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total ₭4.258 trillion
 -  Per capita ₭36,719
Gini (2016)25.3
low
HDI (2016)Increase 0.802
very high · 33rd
QLI (2016)7.06 high
IEF (2016)40.1 Repressed
Currency Hanti (HAN)
Time zone (TUC-1)
Date format YYYY/MM/DD
Drives on the right
Calling code +4
ISO 3166 code BU
Internet TLD .bu, .co.bu

The Burawa Republic (Burawi: Jamhuuriyadda Buurawat), commonly known as Burawa (Burawi: Buurawat), is a unitary republic of approximately 76.22 million people located in Southern Kaftia that stretches the northern part of the Mesogean Sea. The nation is comprised of 33 provinces, 3 Independent Cities, one of which is the Capital District where the capital, Kankadadka is located as well as 8 territorial possesions.

Present-day Burawa has been the home of many ancient civilizations dating back to the Bronze Age. The modern state originated from the collapse of the Buurawat Empire after the deposition of the last emperor Kulmis Weyn, during the Burawa Revolt. The state underwent drastic changes to its area of control and governance until the coup of Manaa Kadar in 1925 during the events of Blue July. Under Burawa's constitution, the government must redraft the document every 40 years to account for changes in the Burawi society. The last update was in 2000, where the was officially denoted as a secular socialist republic.

Burawa is a highly developed country and has Adonia's ??th largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the Adonian Community, the Pan-Kaftian Economic Development Organization, the Kaftian Union and an associate member of the Mesogean Cooperation Organization.

Etymology

History

Ancient and Classic Periods

Mesogean Period

Medieval Period (325 - 1490)

During the fall of the Mesogean League, many independent city-states had started to expand past its borders; cities like Mazar, Catania, and Lambdia were occupying areas along rivers to the further inland. In 325, the warrior-king Sonda I of the small Kingdom of Ufyen had begun to rapidly expand from their native land surrounding Haro Lake. Sonda and his successors, Sonda II and Sonda III were able to expand their empire, known as the Sonda Dynasty from Haro to regions just short of the NORTHERN SEA by 433. The 4th to the 7th century were marked by instability in area, much of the coastline had been fragmented to smaller kingdoms and city states. TheAnab people, a group of invaders spurring from the Vasaros, had started to appear on the coast around 500 to set up trading outposts and later villages. The Anab people, underneath Babrak I, established a small kingdom around Souq peninsula.

In 785, the ruler of the Webi Kingdom, Markos Ellyas had named himself the ruler of all Burawi people, renaming his nation to the Buurawat Kingdom and gave himself the name Markos I. With the support of the Papal States, he had formed an army to expand his empire north and westward towards the Sonda Dynasty. Sonda VI, the ruler at the time began fighting skirmishes with the Buurawat Empire in the 40 years war. The war had ended only a few years after Markos I had died, leaving his throne to his two sons, Markos II and Anthony I. The two brothers had decided to split the empire into two halves along the Guduka river, the Northern Buurawat Kingdom and the Southern Buurawat Kingdom.

Northern Buurawat Kingdom

The Northern Buurawat Kingdom existed between 825 to 985 and occupied the lands northwest of Guduka river to the tip of the Kaffa Peninsula. The Kingdom was fairly weak in central command, often ruled by various smaller kings and dukes in each of its territorial subdivisions. The King of the Northern Buurawat Kingdom was seen more as an organizer and collector of taxes. The first kings being Markos II, had ruled the kingdom until his death in 578, where he had been succeeded by 5 kings until it dissolved in 985 into either ungoverned jungle territory or parts of the Southern Buurawat Empire and Fiume Union

Southern Buurawat Empire

The Southern Buurawat Kingdom originally occupied areas between all Burawi speaking areas between present-day Sabia and eastern Kaytoy. The ruler, Anthony I of Buurawat had spent most of his time restoring areas formerly run by the Sonda Dynasty into Buurawat territory. With the death of Sonda IV and the rise of the Maia Kingdom in the area northeast of Haro, much of the people had joined the kingdom. In 805, the kingdom had fought the 50 years war with neighboring Maia Kingdom, eventually winning and increasing their territory in the east. The kingdom only became known as the Southern Buurawat Empire after the collapse of the Northern Buurawat Kingdom in 985, prompting Yacuub III to declare himself emperor of both lands, and sent his armies to invade all the coastal regions of the area. Knowing the instability and low value of the inland areas, he had left much of the territory to self-rule with minimal occupation.

Buurawat Empire (1490 - 1832)

By the middle of the 1400's much of the remnants of the Southern Buurawat Empire had begun to weaken from internal and external conflicts. The third son of Haweeyo II, Haweeyo Wyen| was able to consolidate power within the fighting factions and in 1490, in the Declaration of Toghdeer, announced himself as the ruler of a unified Buurawat Empire, renaming himself Weyn I. The following year, Weyn I, attempted to consolidate power by breaking away from the influence of Papal States to found his own church under Kaftian Catholicism. His decision came during the middle of the Two Centuries War, where Buurawat had originally supported the Volisania. To avoid a an invasion of Buurawat, Weyn I supported the militaries of the Zamarra Papacy. Starting in 1492, he imprisoned and executed several Petran clerics, bringing himself into the war.

The following decades of Weyn I and his son, Weyn II's rule was characterized by aggressive conquest of neighboring kingdoms and lands. By the time of Weyn II's death, the Buurawat Empire's borders had extended from west of Orma to the northern coasts of Balanta. Weyn II was able to exploit the general weakness of the northern regions of the Kaffa Peninsula to quickly integrate many rival chiefdoms to join his empire. By 1545, he mounted a invasion of Volisania and was able to take hold of Reige for a number of years.

Weyn III, the youngest son of Weyn II, assumed the title of Emperor at 25. Trained in the military at a young age and fought in the invasion of Volisania, Weyn III had grown to despise war. Under his rule, the Buurawat Empire had ceased the growth of its land borders, focusing more on internal infrastructure, including the creation and maintenance of national roadways for trade. Weyn III was a controversial leader due to his pacifist attitude and reductionist military practice to a point where he had been killed in 1573 by a group of military leaders, known as the Group of Five. Weyn III's third son, Amail of Haro hastily took over his role as emperor, taking the name Weyn IV. Predicting an oncoming schism, Weyn IV ordered the execution of all the group of five members and affiliates as well as forced the exile of his two brothers.

Because Weyn IV was not considered the true heir of the Buurawat throne, many of the elite of Buurawat were questioning the current line of succession. Further issues arose as Weyn IV's only son, Mooge of Odari was married to a Kastrunetian princess Constança do Botão, a catholic. After Weyn IV's death, the Maris Boqorro, or Passage of Kings doctrine, was established by the Burawat church to standardize of succession of emperors to the eldest son of the descendant of Weyn I. This moved the line of succession from Mooge of Odari to Weyn III's eldest son's eldest son Harad Weyn, later named Weyn V.

Post-Maris Boqorro Reforms

Weyn V rose to power in 1606 and had ushered in a new age of exploration and discovery. From the start of his reign to the mid 17th century, Weyn Shanaad attempted to "modernize" the populace of Buurawat by introducing state sponsored scientific institutions, as well as the Imperial Shipping Fleet, a naval institution focused on discovery and colonization of new territories as well as protection existing assets of the state. In 1624, Buurawat had established its first colonies in Lurandia, in current day COUNTRYLAND. Buurawat's expansion was overall stemmed by its Illypnian rivals, and overseas territory had begun to wane after the end of Weyn Shanaad's rule.

Weyn V son, Weyn VI's reign started in 1654 at the age of 14. His young age proved to be a point of instability, where in the first 4 years of his rule, Volisania was able to push the military of Buurawat out of Illypnia. The shocking defeat of the Buurawat forces continued the time of instability of the nation under its young leader. In 1658, Weyn VI was captured on return from Kastruneto by Orma privateers.

The top general, Kaaiyre Daafaca declared war on the Orma Kingdom as soon as word arrived his capture. The Buurawat-Orma War lasted from 1659 to 1684. The conflict ended in a stalemate that damaged both military powers. The Treaty of Capua was signed in the winter of 1683, but fighting continued until early next year. Weyn VI had died during the conflict due to the sinking of ship he was set to return on. Kaaiyre Daafaca, using his power and status was able to declare himself emperor after annoucing the death of the childless Weyn VI. He was crowned emperor in 1684, with the name Kaaiyre Abdikarím or Abdikarím I.

Abdikarím Dynasty

Abdikarím I attempted to reconquer much of the territories lost during the reign of Weyn VI, starting with territory lost during the Buurawat-Orma War. Abdikarím launched his conquest of Central Kaftia in 1694. Fearing the growth of the Illypnian powers, Abdikarím did not attempt to reconquer REGION, which was returned to Volisania in the early years of Weyn VI reign. During Abdikarím's rule, the once military leader, enacted a number of reforms to improve the nation's internal mobility and transportation, military education systems, and research institutions. Abdikarím was the first emperor in Buurawat to establish a national research University, the University of Iskhal. Abdikarím's died in 1692 from a concussion from a horse riding accident. His son, Abdikarím II, took the throne the same year.

Abdikarím II continued his father's strong arm policy of reform and expansion. By the turn of the century the Buurawat empire had colonies on 3 continents. Abdikarím II instituted a second issuance of reforms aimed at culture and imperial unity. Some of these policies including enforcing a national language through all its territories, investment in Buurawat culture and its spread to its territories. The reforms also included a strict new eradication of local religious and cultural artifacts. Abdikarím II died in 1712 with no heir. A military tribunal, known as the Magan Kooxaha was established that following year to select a new leader - Odawaa Ellyas.

Decline and collapse

Odawaa Ellyas, was one of the first military elected emperors of Buurawat. Unlike his predecessors, he was no longer tied to the Maris Boqorro, and was replaced by a new tribunal elected leader after his death. Ellyas ruled shortly from 1712 to 1720, where he oversaw the construction of the Dawacaale Canal, which connected lake Lake Ghefai to Lake Karaas. Ellays was assassinated by agents connected to members of the current Magan Kooxaha. Magan Kooxaha would soon appoint and assassinate three more Emperors until 1735.

Dayax Ćawil, the at the time General of the 12th Buurawat regiment had ordered the arrest and execution of the members of the Magan Kooxaha in 1735. Ćawil was able to arrest and execute the members with little conflict and had declared that he would take the role as Emperor of Buurawat. Dayax Ćawil took the name of Weyn VII after marrying the great-granddaughter of Weyn V, Duchess Aamino of Odari. Between 1735 and 1760, much of Cawil's goals were to further integrate Buurawat's colonies into Buurawati culture, this included the destruction of religious artifacts and genocide of unwanted peoples. The poor treatment of much of Buurawat's territories lead to many to start to violently rebel against Buurawat.

Internally, Cawil was not able to do much better as he ruled with an oppressive hand, silencing speech and progress of anything that he personally did not deem in his best interest.

Burawa State (1832 - 1925)

The Burawa State was established in 1832 as a federation of multiple regions that wanted to remain under the direct influence and protection of Burawa. These federated sub-nations included Burawa, Western Omra, Togom and Waqooyiga, Maianka, Iraqwi, Sabia, Kushish, Ikaal (Burawa State Region), Nzakare and yyy. Each country was given special self-governance rights but was required to come together and share resources for the general good of the state. The country was led by a president elected by all citizens of each territory. The period during Burawa State's existence was categorized by the rapid industrialization of the nation from growing trade and investment from Illypnia. The Burawi railway network was completed in 1865, connecting thousands of miles of plantations to the coast, fueling huge growth in economic prosperity for the nation in the following years. Systems such as civil law, the metric system and state secularism were adopted by the middle of the 1800's. In 1875, universal suffrage was enacted under the Rights of Man Act. In 1887 the country fought a minor war with Grand Orma, a newly created state from the remanents of the Orma Empire.

Many territories formerly colonized by Burawa State were granted freedom to declare independence, those included x, y, z. The weakness of the Burawa State started to show at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1904, Henri Xeyre, the current president-elect had canceled elections, causing an internal panic. Corruption soared as bureaucrats introduced multiple layers of governance to prevent income mobility within the country. Oligarchs, such as the Samatar and Wune families had grown to tremendous power in the nation, easily swaying political decisions. At the same time, youth movements such as the New Republic Movement lead by Yon Tite and the communist kadarists lead by Manaa Kadar had been participating in protests and later riots across the country. New isolationist policies and internal conflict in Burawa's Mesogean neighbors had also created a damper on trade, increasing debt, as much money from tariffs were skimmed by corrupt officials.

Contemporary period

Red July

Red July was the name for the communist insurrection by members of the Wada Party on 1 July 1924. The event, led by Kadarist Manaa Kadar had been a month-long clash between anti-government revolutionaries and Burawi military forces. Due to poor management and discontent within the Burawa State Military, many soldiers had defected to Manaa Kadar's government.

Great Adonian War

Second Burawa Republic

Geography and Climate

Biodiversity

Climate

Environment

Demographics

Population

Language

Religion

Urbanization

Burawa has an urbanization rate of 75.9% with an approximate urban population of 88,282,221. Burawa has 16 cities with a population over one million, with many of them and their metropolitan areas part of a greater Metropolitan conurbation. Metropolitan conurbation consists of approximately 44 million or 50% of all people who live in urban areas. Metropolitian conurbations geographically and economically interconnected region of multiple metropolitan areas. These areas special planning authorities and funding statutes that are controlled by sub-provincial bodies. Cities and towns in non-conurbations are usually subject to the direct authority of the provinces they operate under. Burawa has been slowly continuing to urbanize, primarily in the rural regions of Banda and Edamka, which have had an urbanization rate of 12% and 14% per year, respectively.

Government

Administrative Divisions

Burawa is subdivided into 24 provinces, 3 Independent Cities, and 8 Territories of Burawa. The provinces are further divided into 9,534 municipalities.

Province Capital Largest City Population
Banda BA Masina Masina 4,388,344
Beberene BB Aktei Aktei 3,285,854
Belgmudi BE Oolg Oolg 1,332,534
Dalexe DA Yaquubalka Yaquubalka 45,234
Dihulka DI Pazano Linge 9,849,334
Edamka ED Iteka Harsh 4,590,445
Farahgeri FA Damal Damal 674,952
Fayuma FY Fulla Fulla 149,530
Fhulka FH Tur-Kaylo Tur-Kaylo 618,053
Gawaar GA Sital Magaxe 6,868,663
Gudulka GU Kau Kau 958,424
Haluulinta HU Handigle Handigle 2,552,324
Haro HA Jowhar Badalga 8,242,952
Horyooy HY Elgal Elgal 815,344
Hudur HO Iskhal Iskhal 19,038,536
Ikaal IK Ikaal Ikaal 107,034
Iraqwi IR Rigomane Lanwaley 9,084,709
Iwari IW Tulad Tulad 2,343,698
Kankadadka KA 2,423,400
Kautoy KU Fiinar Fiinar 1,004,324
Kaytoy KY Karde Merca 3,170,768
Kordeka KO Ead Ead 216,905
Lambdia LA 353,423
Lomaga LO Buriga Buriga 785,855
Luoka LO Galad Galad 677,444
Luuq LU Mayash Adado 3,101,610
Mazar MZ 1,223,400
Mibiyaka MI Mibiyaka City Mibiyaka City 580,400
Moshan MO Kaysoor Kaysoor 3,685,953
Nuunaay NU Daborow Daborow 2,812,424
Odari OD Maaxato Samara 4,912,952
Orraxley OR Dareerto Dareerto 2,105,432
Qalan QA Weli Caro Jari 2,564,745
Saarey SA Rehis Rehis 544,703
Soomalka SO Yahlo Yahlo 125,053
Waqooyiga WA Laasqoray Laasqoray 10,734,966

Independent Cities

Independent cities are regions of Burawa that are designated by the government with no provincial authority mandated over them. They are either controlled directly by the government or are given special administrative rights over themselves. There are currently only three independent cities in Burawa: Kankadadka, the capital of Burawa, Mazar, and Lambdia.

The city of Kankadadka is a special administrative city run directly by a special ministry in Burawa. The cities of Mazar and Lambdia are classified as Free Economic Zones, which are designated spaces where most industries (excluding transportation and infrastructure) are not subject to normal forms of taxation, tariffs or other particular administrative policy.

Independent Cities of the Burawi Republic
Name Postal Code Abbreviation Population Area km2 ISO Admin. Division
Kankadadka 10000 MAZ 2,423,400 450.4 BU-50 List (8 districts)
Mazar 90534 MAZ 1,223,400 815.2 BU-51 List (12 districts)
Lambdia 36904 LAM 853,423 513.2 BU-52 List (5 districts)

Parties and Elections

Foreign Relations

Military

The Burawi Military is organized into Ciidamada Cirka (Air Force), Ciidan (Army), Ciidamada Badda (Navy), Adeeg Cilmi, and Adeegga Caafimaadka. In 2015, military spending was ₭60.75 billion, about 2.5% of the country's GDP.

With a reported 415,047 active and 1,500,000 reserve service members, Burawa is considered both a major regional and military power. Burawa since its foundation has had compulsory military training and service for its citizens starting at the age of 18 for two years. Since 1990, college students and persons involved in grant-funded independent research are able to forgo training and participate in a Combined Educational Service Program for two years.

The Burawi military primarily relies on a combination of high-tech weapons systems and satellite/air defense networks to keep and maintain its sovereignty over its disputed territories as well as provide support to partner nations in the Pan-Kaftian Defense Network.

Economy

Burawa has a heavily controlled semi-socialist economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a low level of corruption, and a high level of innovation. It is the world's sixth largest exporter of goods, and has the largest national economy in Kaftia.

Most of Burawa's major enterprises are state owned, organizations that usually aren't state owned are classed as non-essential businesses, which are companies that do not contribute "majorly to a Burawi person's life". Such businesses include Yadir, an investment banking firm, Nassér, an asset management organization, Kosham-Guuce, a major electronics manufacturer and Korsa, a major social networking website.

As of 2015 Burawa's labor force consisted of 63.4 million workers. Burawa has a low unemployment rate of between 0~2%. Much of this is attributed by bike-shed jobs sponsored by the government.

Exports

Burawa has a diverse and large export capacity, with exports ranging from electronics, chemical goods, oil, natural gas, copper, plastics, machine tools, pharmaceuticals, processed foods and, electronic parts.

Imports

Burawa's main imports are vehicles, raw materials, and textiles. Burawa is one of the worst countries to do business in, with one of the highest taxes on corporate income. Most imports are handled by the Burawa Import Bank, which may purchase wholesale goods tax-free and resell them locally or organize direct sales inside Burawa. Since 2002, companies no longer needed to coordinate sales with the Burawa Import Bank and could perform direct sales to retailers.

Technology

Technology has been the forefront of Burawi strategy since Kaaiyre Abdikarím. Burawa since 2005 has made significant investments in scientific research grants with $84 billion spent on average each year. Burawa has been home to some famous inventors and engineers, inclding Barkhad Zakaria, the inventor of y, as well as Bedri Ćigál, the father of g.

The Burawa National Space Agency is the largest contributor to the Kaftian Space Association, with names including Geedi Warsamé, the inventor of the modern Solar thermal rocket, who currently work there. The space program is one of the world's most active. Its first satellite, Kaxarey-1 was launched in 1969 and doing so became the fourth country to independently launch one. Burawa sent its first human into space in 1994, being the sixth country to do so independently.

Research has been a main focus of the current Burawan Technology initiative, with grants to universities and their students making up 30% of their technology investment budget. Their top schools have produced 8 Nobel Prize in Physics, 3 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and 2 in Medicine. In 2015 their universities had also produced 82,000 BSc students.

Burawa has also invested into the development of supercomputers, which are consistently ranked near the top. Since the 1990s much of the manufacturing industry has grown to utilize industrial robots.

Since 2002, Burawa has changed its policy on the research and sale of technology developments to prevent the emigration of the best engineers in the country. The policy change allowed companies built on-top or utilizing the internet protection from nationalization without due cause in court, where it's deemed as a public necessity. This new policy allowed hundreds of startups to pop up in cities like Iskhal and Kaysoor.

As of 2016, 72.1% of Buwari households own a computer, and 86.4% own a mobile phone.

International Development Banks

Burawa since 1984 has established numerous International Development Banks to promote the development and growth of the economies of primarily Kaftian nations. Currently Burawa solely operates the Southern Kaftian Development Bank, Central Kaftian Development Bank, Greater Fosian Development Bank, and currently is a member of 8 other regional development banks.

Education

Culture

Food

Literature, philosophy, and the arts

Music

Cinema

Sports

Media

Infrastructure

Internet and Telecommunications

Burawa currently has the highest internet penetration in all of Kaftia, with 92.4% of the Burawi population connected to the network in 2015. Burawa's internet service provider is state-owned and provides access to internet gateway to its neighbors' Kushish and Sabia. Since 2009, the Burawi Government has invested $18.32 billion on internet development, which includes digitization of all its government records, providing internet access via satellite to remote regions of Burawa, research and grants on 5G internet, as well as running high-speed optical fiber throughout its whole country. The national average internet speed 17.12 Mbit/s, with an average peak connection of 84.5 Mbit/s. Burawa Telecom, SiTel and NidTem are Burawa's major telephone operators.

Burawa has heavily invested in its own satellite navigation system since the 1980s and currently is utilized primarily by services in Southern and Central Kaftia. Burawa ranks highly with regard to freedom of use of the internet.

Transportation

Burawa has been historically known for its well connected and maintained roadways since the reign of Weyn Saddexaad. In the 1970s the mandate on national infrastructure renewed improvement on all forms of transportation within the nation. The country had adopted a three tier transportation network headed by aircraft, then trains, then roadways, all which needed to be connected to each major city in the country. The infrastructure overhaul primarily effected its train system, which had lagged behind the western powers.

Burawa has one of the most comprehensive major road networks in the world, where national, state and district operated highways and expressways totaling 209,344 miles (336,907 km) are able to connect to 98% of the population. The IKA is one of the busiest freight transit routes in Kaftia, connecting the Ports of Mazar and Iskhal with cities and factories in southern Nalara. In 2015 there were a total of 30 million licensed vehicles in Burawi.

Railways in Burawa are operated by the state-owned, Burawi Railway Corporation, that handles 85.3 billion tonne-km of freight and 44.1 billion passenger-km every year. The national rail network is divided into a three tier system of high speed rail, commuter rail, and freight rail that wholley operate on 27,432 miles (44,147.5 km) of track. The Burawi Railway Corporation also provides rail services to neighboring Sabia and southern Kushish and Dakare. 17 cities in Burawa also have city-specific urban mass transit systems, including the Iskhal Metro, the Mazar 5, and the Badalga Metro.

There are 85 commercial airports currently in Burawa that handle over 274 million passengers a year. The largest of these airports are Iskhal Togdheer International Airport (84.29 million), Kankadadka International Airport (63.94 million) and Pazano International Airport (55.48 million). Burawa has one national airline, Dawati, that flies to every airport in the country. Burawa has two privately owned airlines that are based out of Mazar: Duufaan and Mazar Airlines.

Energy

Burawa ranks x in energy consumption per-capita, utilizing the equivalent of 6.6 tons (5,987.42 kg) of oil per year. 30% from nuclear, 28% from natural gas, 22% of this energy came from natural gas, and the remainder from renewable energy. Burawa is the x largest producer of oil, producing 3.25 billion barrels a day as well as the x largest source of natural gas with 7.1 trillion cubic meters of gas. The country in the 50s and 60s had relied on oil to fuel growth of its infrastructure and industry, but since 1992 started to reduce its energy and economic reliance on the fuel by investing in nuclear energy and other clean energy sources.

Health

Burawa has a life expectancy of 80.1 years at birth, up from 78.5 years in 1990.