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|Federal Republic of Breisland
|Motto: "Semper Fides"
|Anthem: "Lied von der blauen Fahne"
"Song of the Blue Flag"
Location of Breisland in Adonia
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Alemannic
|Government||Constitutional parliamentary federal republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Gerhard Klepper|
761,517.4 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|-||Total||₭19.010 trillion (1st)|
|-||Per capita||₭57,362 (8th)|
medium · ??th
very high · 4th
|QLI (2016)||7.380 high|
|IEF (2016)||76.2 Mostly Free|
|Currency||Krone (₭) (
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy CE|
|Drives on the||right|
Breisland, officially the Federal Republic of Breisland (Breislandic: Bundesgemeinwesen Breisland), is a parliamentary federal republic in south-central Illypnia. At 1.95 million square kilometers and with over 331 million people, the country is Illypnia's most populous and second largest by total area, and Adonia's ??th largest and the fifth most populous. It is also the most popular migration destination in the world.
Various Breislandic tribes have occupied southern Breisland since classical antiquity. During the Migration Period the Riphean tribes expanded northward. The region now known as Breisland eventually became the medieval Kingdom of Breisland. Breisland emerged as a major Illypnian power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Two Centuries War strengthening Breislandic state-building and influence in the region. During the Renaissance, Breisland experienced a vast cultural development and established the beginning of a global colonial empire.
Breisland became Illypnia's dominant cultural, political, and military power under the House of Hess, but in the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the Breislandic Revolution. The Industrial Revolution modernized the Breislandic economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of labor movements in Breisland. Engelbert von Schlieffen orchestrated a coup d'état in 1795 and crowned himself emperor in 1800. He was defeated and died in battle in 1829, with Breisland becoming a constitutional monarchy. A Second Republic was proclaimed after the February Revolution in 1846. The country entered the Great Adonian War as the leading power of the Allied Pact and fought on two fronts the Communist Alliance and the Coastal Powers. It emerged from the war as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, and a founding member of the Adonian Community.
Breisland is a developed country and has Adonia's largest national economy by nominal and real GDP, benefiting from an abundance of natural resources and high worker productivity. While the Breislandic economy is considered post-industrial, the country continues to be one of Adonia's largest manufacturers. Accounting for 25% of global military spending and 20% of global GDP, it is the world's foremost military and economic power, a prominent political and cultural force, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory
- 2.2 Antiquity
- 2.3 Breislandic tribes and Kingdom of Breisia
- 2.4 Renaissance and royal power
- 2.5 Revolution, republics and empires
- 2.6 Great Recession
- 2.7 Great Adonian War
- 2.8 Adonian Depression
- 2.9 Counterculture and Nusaraya War
- 2.10 Conservative successions
- 2.11 Into the 21st century
- 2.12 Recent history
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
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Breislandic tribes and Kingdom of Breisia
The conversion to Christianity of the BREISIAN TRIBE LEADER, baptized in CITY on 24 December 496 by Bishop SAINT DUDE, made him the ally of the Church and enabled him to conquer the essential part of Breis lands at the turn of the 5th and 6th centuries centuries. The fusion of Mesogean contributions, Breis heritages and Christianity is long and difficult, the Breis originally constituting a warlike society with laws far removed from Mesogean law and Christian principles. While the demographic weakness of the Kingdom of Breisia led to a decline of the cities, Christianity was established by the construction of rural churches and especially of many monasteries. If the power of LEADER seemed originally solid, the Hess dynasty soon faced serious difficulties. The 7th century saw a struggle for hegemony between Breis and the Kingdom of Regensburg, which in the 8th century gave way to Erfurtish preeminence. In the early 9th century Regensburg was displaced as the foremost kingdom by Breis. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Parani culminated in the conquest of the north and east of Breis. They eventually fought back under Friedrich the Great, and under his successors, Breis steadily expanded to regain its lost territories. At the same time, the powers of the old counts continued to increase, while the royal power diminished. A feudal society was established, characterized by its division into three orders: the clergy, the nobility, and the peasantry.
A dispute over the succession to SOME KING led to the Breis conquest of Regensburg in 1046, accomplished by an army led by King Friedrich IV. This brought about the political unification of Breisland, first accomplished under Maximilian I in 1052 and definitively established after further conflicts by DUDE in 1061. The vast kingdom is controlled by a centralized administration based in Velden, with counts representing NAME throughout the empire monitored by the Sendgraf. Nevertheless, the FAMILY kings controlled directly only a very small portion of the Breislandic territory, called the royal domain, and some of their vassals were much more powerful than them. In the twelfth century, the royal power began to assert itself against the princes of the kingdom, but had to face, from the 1150s onwards, at the birth of a "Zeelandic Empire" regrouping Zeeland, Viborg and the southern third of Breisland. The FAMILY kingdom reached its first apogee in the thirteenth century, when the monarchy regained the power it had lost while Breislandic art and culture asserted itself in Illypnia. Friedrich V (1180-1223) manages to conquer most of the Breislandic possessions of Zeeland, temporarily ending the Zeelandic threat and enlarging considerably the royal domain on the same occasion. KING (1226-1270) acts as an arbiter of Christendom and participates in the seventh and eighth crusades, which will lead him to be quickly canonized by the Catholic Church. The fourteenth up to the first half of the sixteenth century saw Breisland plunge into a grave crisis, the expressions of which were manifold. The Two Centuries War, waged against the Papal States and born of a problem of papal succession in Petra, ravaged the continent. However, the crisis of the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was not only political or military: it was also demographic — the Red Death killed at least one third of the population of the kingdom from 1347 — social — peasant and urban insurgencies multiply — economic and religious. Nevertheless, if the monarchy was also affected by this crisis, it emerged stronger: the central power in Velden set up new institutions, a professional army and a permanent tax system.
Renaissance and royal power
The Breislandic monarchs waged several wars in Central Illypnia during the Two Centuries War, but the reigns of Karl I (1515-1547) and his son Heinrich V (1547-1559) are characterized by a reinforcement of royal power, which tends to become absolute and by an artistic and literary Renaissance strongly influenced by the Northern Illypnia. In 1539, Karl I makes "Breislandic" the administrative and judiciary language of the kingdom. However, the unity of Breisland around the monarch is challenged even after the end of the Two Centuries War. With the centralization of power in the hands of the monarchy away from the nobles, Breislandic kings must face the opposition of the nobility desiring to gain back their former privileges and powers. In the early 17th century, Breisland waged several victorious wars (including the MAJOR WAR) and began to establish a colonial empire, principally in Lurandia, following the establishment of similar colonies by other Illypnian powers.
Karl II affirms more than ever the absolute character of his power, considering himself the "lieutenant of God on Adonia" and built the Palace of Velden, symbol of his power. He surrounded himself with artists and scholars and worked for the religious unity of his kingdom by resuming the persecution of the Petran Catholics and other non-Zamarra Christians. Despite the critical financial situation of the monarchy, Karl II waged several wars against Illypnian coalitions against him while his underlings built a network of fortified cities on the borders of the Kingdom. If these wars ended initially in Breislandic victories, several military defeats and famines tarnished the end of his reign.
Karl III (1715-1774), great-grandson and successor of Karl II also led several wars, with contrasting results. He supported the central leadership of the Dinarides in the Varkan Restoration War in 1758, which ended by the Treaty of Klow in 1760, creating the first modern republic in Varkana, marking the beginning of the Revolutionary Wars. In 1763, by the Treaty of Koblenz, which ended the MAJOR WAR, Breisland gained possessions in Empodia, and acquired Region up to the Saan in the same decade. At the same time, Breisland was experiencing strong demographic and economic vitality. The growth of agricultural production was accompanied by proto-industrialization, notably in the textile sector, as well as an increase in the intellectual and cultural fields. However, Karl IV, who acceded to the throne in 1774, proved incapable of finding a solution to the over-indebtedness of the monarchy and had to convoke the Royal Council in 1788.
Revolution, republics and empires
Inspired by the Revolutionary Wars waged across Illypnia, the bürgertum class emerged supporting peasants against the nobility and aristocracy. The Breislandic revolution erupted in 1788, in Koblenz, after the Royal Council oversteps its granted powers and declares itself a national constituent assembly. The king could not stop the constituent assembly from abolishing the privileges of the aristocracy on 4 August and to adopt on 26 August the "Declaration of the rights of Man and the Citizen" (something similar at least for the sake of universal democracy TM). After a failed attempt at constitutional monarchy, the Republic of Breisland is established on DATE 1791, Karl IV is arrested, convicted of treason, and executed on DATE 1792. A bicameral parliament is established in 1792, with a semi-presidential system modeled after Varkana, giving great powers in the hands of the president.
Volisania became a relentless enemy of Breisland during the revolutionary period, and also took advantage of the chaos of the time to acquire some of its colonies. In 1794 the Volisan troops expelled the Breislandics from SOME SHITHOLE. On DATE, 1795, General Engelbert von Schlieffen overthrew the government by a coup d'état and became president. Five years later, he crowned himself emperor. Engelbert created or reformed many institutions, and his multiple military victories put a quarter of the Illypnian population under his control in the early 1800s. His reign would last until 1829, when he perished and his armies were defeated in the ?? in Sarta.
Breisland then began a second experiment of constitutional monarchy, with Karl V (1829-1837) followed by Johann XII (1837-1846). While the former questioned part of the achievements of the Revolution, the latter was considered a reformer, but protests soon rose, in spite of the economic development which Breisland was experiencing at the time. In February 1846, a new revolution broke out, the objectives of which were no longer political but also social. The Second Republic, which was then established as a parliamentary republic to limit the powers of the president, instituted universal male suffrage and abolished slavery in the colonies, as well as the death penalty for political reasons. They implemented protective laws of minors and economic legislative progress towards free trade.
The Liberal Party came to power and in 1853 concluded an alliance with Sarta which culminated in the ?? War against ???. Breisland intervened in ??? during the ?? War, and, after the insurrection of COLONY. In 1865, the Conservatives formed a majority government with Martin von Soldner becoming Prime Minister.
Breisland's colonial empire was expanded to include ??, ?? and many other territories throughout Adonia. Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, Breislandic dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many regions, such as ???. Domestically, political attitudes favored free trade and laissez-faire policies and a gradual widening of the voting franchise. During the later part of the 19th century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanization, causing significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the Conservative Party under Bruno von Fraunhofer launched a period of imperialist expansion in ??, ??, and elsewhere.
In the election of 1895, the Liberal Party formed a government after 30 years of Conservative rule. Rudolf Heim formed a ministry whose dominant personality was Eduard Esslinger, who became Minister of Foreign Affairs. In spite of the War of the Pfein for the independence of Wolffrea in 1896, foreign affairs came to the fore: conflict with Volisania, intervention in the Kalinova-Samarstan war, conflict with Aetolia about some colony, policy of expansion in Fosia, and Northern Kaftia were the main manifestations of Breislandic imperialism. In 1899, Breisland formally recognized the independence of Wolffrea. After the turn of the century, Breisland's industrial dominance was challenged by other great powers.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Kalinova was developing rapidly both militarily and industrially and was considered the likely adversary in a future war. In addition, Breisland felt threatened by the Kalinovan army, which although inferior in numbers did not have to defend an immense colonial empire. As a result, Breisland formed an alliance with Limonia in 1901 and with its former enemies, Sarta and Aetolia respectively in 1902 and 1907. Tension escalated in East Fosia with the 1904 Revolution in Daras and the subsequent Darasian Civil War which ended in 1912, with Limonia intervening in the war and Breisland intending to do the same. However, risk of going to war with other great powers in East Fosia such as Zong, Fenia and Hitani limited Breisland in its approach. An alliance with Hitani was concluded in 1916, with promises that Breisland would not interfere with Hitani colonial interests.
In 1919, the Vasari Civil War started with Mousavi and the communists emerging victors in 1923. The Vasari state seized Breislandic and Aetolian-controlled oil fields in the east of the country, prompting the 1923 Gulf Crisis. War almost broke out, but a diplomatic solution was reached between Aetolia, Breisland and Vasaras.
The Stock Market Crash of 1925 caused a major worldwide economic downturn when it occurred in October of that year. It marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth as well as personal advancement. The usual explanations include numerous factors, especially high consumer debt, ill-regulated markets that permitted overoptimistic loans by banks and investors, and the lack of high-growth new industries, all interacting to create a downward economic spiral of reduced spending, falling confidence and lowered production.
Industries that suffered the most included construction, agriculture as dust-bowl conditions persisted in the agricultural heartland, shipping, mining, and logging as well as durable goods like automobiles and appliances that could be postponed. The economy reached bottom in the winter of 1928–29; then came four years of rapid growth until the beginning of the Great Adonian War which brought down unemployment massively due to the war effort.
The recession caused major political changes in Breisland. Three years into the recession, Prime Minister Erich Dieminger, widely blamed for not doing enough to combat the crisis, lost the election of 1929 to Conservative Friedrich Weixler in a landslide. Weixler's economic recovery plan instituted unprecedented programs for relief, recovery and reform. Large scale spending projects designed to provide private sector construction jobs and rebuild the infrastructure were orchestrated as well, including the Bundesautobahnen which began construction in 1933.
The recession also resulted in an increase of emigration of people for the first time in Breislandic history. For example, some immigrants went back to their native countries, and some native Breislandic citizens went to COLONIES. It also resulted in the mass migration of people from badly hit areas in the South and the East to places such as Regensburg and the North, respectively. Racial tensions also increased during this time. By the mid 1930s immigration had returned to normal, and emigration declined.
Great Adonian War
On 28 July 1934, Zong declared war on Breisland, starting the Great Adonian War.
Following the Great Adonian War, the Breislandic economy was heavily damaged with most resources going to the war effort. This, along with many other economic factors, triggered a global depression known as the Adonian Depression. During this time, Breisland experienced deflation as prices fell, unemployment soared from 3% in 1947 to 25% in 1950, farm prices fell by half, and manufacturing output plunged by one-third. Rationing and conscription dragged on into the post war years until the mid 1950s. The post-war Weixler Doctrine of 1949 provided military aid to Limonia to counteract the threat of Communist expansion in Fosia while Weixler famously declared that Communist expansion was defeated in Illypnia.
In 1951, the newly elected Labor Party under a minority government led by Rudolf Fröhlich held the ??? Conference with the aim of regulating the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of the Great Adonian War. Agreements were signed that, after legislative ratification by member governments, established the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Domestically, the conference was viewed as a major success for Fröhlich and the Labor Party through the efforts of Minister of Finance Hans Maynard Keynes. This helped Labor win a majority of seats in the 1953 general election. Fröhlich then introduced universal healthcare and started to nationalize key industries such as railways and iron and steel. By the time of the general election in 1957, Labor seldom boasted about nationalization of industry. Instead it was the Conservatives who decried the inefficiency and mismanagement, labeling Fröhlich a communist.
Counterculture and Nusaraya War
Rolf Klaußner became Prime Minister and attempted to modernize the country, continuing with Keynesian economic management. After the hurdles of the 1950s were overcome, Breislandic people found themselves flush with cash from wartime and post-war work due to there being little to buy for decades. The result was a mass consumer spending spree, with a huge and voracious demand for new homes, cars, and housewares. Increasing numbers enjoyed high wages, larger houses, better schools, more cars and new technology, a level of prosperity never attained before in history, which labeled the period the Roaring Sixties. Legislative restrictions on Breislandic immigration that had favored Christian immigrants were amended in the early 1960s, opening the doors to immigrants from all parts of Adonia. While the 1950s had seen high levels of immigration from the rest of Illypnia, by the 1970s immigrants increasingly came from Fosia and Kaftia. Immigrants of all backgrounds tended to settle in the major urban centers, particularly Koblenz, Siegen, Jena and Salzgitter.
Breisland entered the Nusaraya War in early 1958, which helped with unemployment and brought Breisland completely out of the depression. Klaußner's growing unpopularity fed already existing social movements, including those among women, minorities, and young people. The Conservative programs and numerous rulings by the Supreme Court added to the wide range of social reform during the 1960s and 1970s. Anti-colonialism, feminism and the environmental movement became political forces. The Counterculture Revolution swept through the nation and much of Adonia in the late sixties and early seventies, further dividing the Breislandic population in a "culture war" but also bringing forth more liberated social views. Klaußner and the Conservatives managed to prevail nonetheless with successive majority governments due to internal divisions within the Labor party and the rise of other political parties.
In 1967, Klaußner ordered the drop of an atomic bomb on the city of WTVR, hoping to force Nusaraya's surrender in a matter of days and thus ending the war swiftly. Images of the drop were and subsequent effects were widely broadcast uncensored globally causing a major backlash. Breislandic use of Agent Orange and other chemical weapons also prompted the Adonian Community to intervene. Major anti-nuclear protests erupted in Breisland and globally, resulting in the fall of the Conservative government following Klaußner's resignation. The Labor Party then returned in power in late 1967, with Prime Minister Udo Lamprecht, who attempted to diplomatically end the war. He negotiated the peace treaty in 1968 which secured the release of POWs and led to the withdrawal of Breislandic troops. The war had cost the lives of 60,000 Breislandic troops.
Lamprecht granted independence to all remaining Breislandic colonies in 1968. The Labor Party of the 1960s switched to a more social democratic approach as opposed to its former socialist inclinations. It contained no hint of radicalism, little disposition to establish crusades against concentrated economic power, and no intention to redistribute wealth or restructure existing institutions like under Fröhlich. Internationally it was strongly anti-Communist. It aimed to defend democracy domestically and abroad, to encourage economic growth at home, and to ensure that the resulting plenty was fairly distributed. Their agenda – much influenced by Keynesian economic theory – envisioned massive public expenditure that would speed economic growth, thus providing the public resources to fund larger welfare, housing, health, and educational programs.
The Shock of 1974 marked a long-term economic transition since, for the first time, energy prices skyrocketed, and Breislandic factories faced serious competition from foreign automobiles, clothing, electronics, and consumer goods from East Fosia especially. By the mid-to-late 1970s the economy suffered an energy crisis, slow economic growth, high unemployment, and very high inflation coupled with high interest rates (the term stagflation was coined).
New Conservative leader Dieter Wernicke, running as someone who was not a part of the Koblenz political establishment, was elected prime minister in 1975 and led the country for four consecutive majority mandates. He ordered a buildup of the Breislandic military, incurring additional budget deficits, and downsized government taxation and regulation. His actions were supported by leading economists who agreed on the wisdom of deregulation, with many of the Great Recession and Adonian Depression regulations ended, such as in transportation, banking, and telecommunications. The government started privatizing several state-owned companies, following the model set forth by Sarta. Government borrowing, along with the tightening of the money supply, resulted in sky high interest rates and a serious recession with 10-percent unemployment in 1981. Some regions of Breisland descended into virtual depression conditions as industries closed. Many family farms nationwide were ruined by high interest rates and sold off to large agribusinesses.
Wernicke's approval ratings plummeted in the worst months of the recession of 1981. Unemployment reached a peak of 12% in late 1981, after which recovery began. A factor in the recovery from the worst periods of 1981-82 was the radical drop in oil prices due to increased domestic production offshore in the Neptic Ocean, which brought a boost to the economy. Since Breislandic saving rates were very low, the deficit was mostly covered by borrowing from abroad, turning Breisland within a few years from Adonia's greatest creditor nation to Adonia's greatest debtor. Not only was this damaging to Breisland's status, it was also a profound shift in the postwar international financial system, which had been dominated by the export of Breislandic capital. In addition, the media and entertainment industry during the 1980s glamorized the stock market and financial sector, causing many young people to pursue careers as brokers, investors, or bankers instead of manufacturing and making it unlikely that any of the lost industrial base would be restored any time soon. Wernicke-era deficits were keeping the Breislandic krone overvalued. With such a high demand for the krone (due in large measure to government borrowing), the krone achieved an alarming strength against other major currencies. As the krone soared in value, Breislandic exports became increasingly noncompetitive, with the MOZ and East Fosia as the leading beneficiaries.
The Breislandic balance of trade grew increasingly unfavorable; the trade deficit grew from ₭20 billion to well over ₭100 billion. Thus, Breislandic industries such as automobiles and steel, faced renewed competition abroad and within the domestic market as well. The auto industry was given breathing space after the Wernicke government imposed voluntary import restraints on foreign manufacturers and imposed a 25% tariff on all imported trucks. Foreign companies responded by opening assembly plants in Breisland to get around this, and in doing so were able to say that they were providing Breislandic people with jobs. The voluntary import restraints were repealed in 1986 after domestic auto sales were booming again, but the tariffs remain in effect to this day. However, the central bank continued with restrictive monetary policy, limiting economic growth in the late 1980s. When the 1990 oil price shock hit in 1992, consumer spending contracted and the economy entered recession. Unlike the early 1980s recession, the recession beginning in 1990 was relatively mild. Some of the hardest hit cities were in west and the central states, while much of the north and east were less affected. This new recession caused Wernicke to lose the 1992 election, with the Labor party entering power.
On the Adonian stage, Wernicke was heavily involved in the Kastrunetian Civil War, offering direct support to the Kastrunetian Armed Forces through ZIAF and marking the military alliance's first involvement in the territory of a member state. Tension with Mesogean states increased, especially with the establishment of the Mesogean Cooperation Organization which Wernicke labeled as a "disguised military alliance". U/C
Into the 21st century
During Helmut Bäumler's premiership, Breislandic political discourse focused mostly on domestic issues. While the early 1990s saw the Breislandic economy mired in recession, a recovery began starting in 1993 and began accelerating thanks to a boom created by technology. The Internet and related technologies made their first broad penetrations into the economy, prompting a Stadtinsel technology-driven bubble. By 1998, the economy was booming and unemployment below 5%. Immigration, mainly from Kaftia and Fosia, swelled during the 1990s, laying the groundwork for great changes in the demographic makeup of the Breislandic population in coming decades, marking the turn towards a multicultural society. In 1999, the Conservatives returned to power led by Eckart Domröse U/C
Early 2000 to 2001 saw the dramatic bursting of the Punkt-kom bubble. Excitement over the prospects of Internet stocks had led to huge increases in the major indexes. However, dozens of start-up Internet companies failed as many of the lofty promises heralded by the new world of the Web failed to materialize. By 2001, the bubble was deflating at full speed. A majority of the punkt-koms ceased trading after burning through their venture capital, many having never made a profit. In 2002, the GDP growth rate rose to 3.1% and the economy started to recover.
Labor returned to power in 2003 with Stanislav Riabokon as prime minister, the first elected Breislandic of Slav descent, and formed a minority government. The Bundestag successfully passed the Civil Marriage Act, legalizing same-sex marriage in Breisland, despite the opposition of the Conservative Party and People's Party. The Labor party managed to gather votes from progressive conservatives and the support of other minor parties. Ultimately, Labor fell to a motion of no confidence in September 2005, leading to another election after only two years.
The Labor Party under Riabokon emerged from the election with a majority of seats in the Bundesversammlung (??? of a total of ??? seats) over ??'s People's Party (which formed the official opposition, with ??? seats) while the Conservatives under former Prime Minister Eckart Domröse finished third for the first time in that party's history, with ?? seats. Under Riabokon, ??? U/C.
On 11 May 2009, Riabokon's Labor Party was defeated by the newly resurgent Conservatives under the leadership of Gerhard Klepper. U/C
Breisland is located in Central Illypnia, with Sarta and Marania bordering to the north, Lusatia and Kalinova to the east, West Lapland to the southeast, Zeeland and Viborg to the south, and Mercia and Caledonia to the northwest. Breisland is also bordered by the Neptic Ocean to the west. Breislandic territory covers 1,950,000 km², and is the second largest country by area in Illypnia after neighboring Kalinova and the ??th largest in Adonia.
Elevation ranges from the Spaar Mountains (highest point: the Zugspitze at 1,862 meters) in the south to the shores of the Neptic Ocean in the west. The forested uplands of central Breisland and the lowlands of western Breisland are traversed by such major rivers as the Saan and Breis. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, copper, natural gas, petroleum, salt, nickel, arable land and water. A well-known geographic feature is Velden Falls, on the Mulda. The Breis Seaway allows navigation to and from the Neptic Ocean as far inland as Jena, Oldenburg.
Most of Breisland has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is partly situated in the oceanic Coastal Illypnian and the continental Eastern Illypnian climates. The climate is moderated by the South Neptic Drift, the southern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the west, the climate is oceanic. Breisland gets an average of 1,129 mm precipitation per year. Rainfall occurs year-round, with no consistent dry season. Winters are mild in the west, but dryer in the east, while summers tend to be warm all over the country: temperatures can exceed 30 °C.
The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and longer dry periods can occur. Central and northern Breisland are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the mountainous regions in the central south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central Breisland Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and greater precipitation.
Largest metropolitan areas of Breisland
Government of Breisland
Breisland is a federal parliamentary republic. The Bundestag meets in the Palace of ??? in Koblenz and has two houses: the Bundesversammlung and the Bundesrat. All bills passed are given presidential assent before becoming law. The Bundesversammlung has 1,000 voting members, each representing a constituent district for a four-year term. Bundesversammlung seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. The Bundesrat has 500 members with each state having 20 senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one third of Bundesrat seats are up for election every other year.
The President is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. They are elected directly by the population for a ten-year term. The President gives direction to general political and societal debates and has some important "reserve powers" in case of political instability. The President represents Breisland in matters of international law, concludes treaties with foreign states on its behalf and accredits diplomats. Furthermore, all federal laws must be signed by the President before they can come into effect; however, he or she can only veto a law that he/she believes to violate the constitution.
The position of prime minister, Breisland's head of government, belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the Bundesversammlung; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in the Bundesversammlung. The prime minister chooses a cabinet and its members are formally appointed by the President to form the Federal Government. By convention, the President respects the prime minister's decisions of government, despite not always being from the same party.
The cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the prime minister's party or coalition and mostly from the Bundesversammlung but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible to both. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet. The current prime minister is Gerhard Klepper, who has been in office since 11 May 2009. Klepper is the leader of the Conservative Party.
There are two main parties in Breisland: the Conservative Party (Konservativepartei), and the Labor Party (Arbeitspartei). The People's Party (Volkspartei) is the third party in terms of representatives elected and party membership.
Breisland uses a federal system based on common law principles, inspired by the Aetolian system. The essence of common law is that, subject to statute, the law is developed by judges in courts, applying statute, precedent and common sense to the facts before them to give explanatory judgments of the relevant legal principles, which are reported and binding in future similar cases (stare decisis). The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the Breislandic Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. Breisland's supreme court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Bundes, is specialized: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labor Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court.
Breisland is a federal republic of 25 states, five territories and eleven uninhabited island possessions. The states and territories are the principal administrative divisions in the country. These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent municipalities.
Breisland is a founding member of the Adonian Community, ZIAF, U/C. Almost all countries have embassies in Koblenz, and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host Breislandic diplomatic missions.
Breisland has strong ties with Sarta, West Lapland, Mercia, Aetolia, Kastruneto, Samarstan, Kalinova, and several of its former colonies, including Wolffrea, Wiseland, Dickichtland and ??. It works closely with fellow Illypnian countries on military and security issues and with its neighbors through free trade agreements.
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. In practice, however, the Federal Government holds most powers over the military through the Minister of Defense and the Prime Minister. The Ministry of Defense administers the armed forces, including the Army, Navy, and Air Force. The Coast Guard is run by the Ministry of the Interior in peacetime and by the Ministry of Defense during times of war. In 2016, the armed forces had 1.15 million personnel on active duty, making it the fourth largest in the world by active personnel. Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime.
Breisland has a mixed economy which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity. The country's gross domestic product by purchasing power parity is estimated to be ₭18.575 trillion as of 2014, thus making it the largest economy in the world. Breisland ranks ??th in the world in GDP per capita at PPP. The Breislandic krone is Adonia's primary reserve currency and most used exchange currency.
Breisland is the largest importer and largest exporter of goods. Kalinova, Sarta Volisania, West Lapland, Bayara, SENW and Aetolia are its top trading partners. In 2016, oil was the largest import commodity, while transportation equipment was the country's largest export.
With its central position in Illypnia, Breisland is a transport hub for the continent. Like its neighbors in Central Illypnia, Breisland's road network is among the densest in the world. Its motorway network ranks as the largest worldwide in length. Passenger trains were the dominant mode of transportation until the mid-twentieth century. The introduction of jet airplanes on major Breislandic routes and the completion of the extensive motorway system accelerated a decline in intercity rail passenger demand during the 1950s and 1960s, resulting in the sharp curtailment of passenger service by private railroads. In the 1980s, a high speed rail network was developed named Breis Bahnverbindung, commonly known as BBV. However, the railway system is a small portion of total travel, accounting for less than 6% of passenger travel.
The largest Breislandic airports are Siegen Airport, Koblenz-Hagedorn Airport, Jena Airport, Salzgitter Airport and Cottbus Airport. Other major airports include Koblenz-Kuhn, Trier, Hildesheim, Moers and Remscheid. There is no single national flag airline; passenger airlines in the country have always been privately owned. There are over 200 domestic passenger and cargo airlines and a number of international carriers. The major international carriers of Breisland are Luftwürzburg (third largest), Breisflügel (second largest), Fliege Breisland (major low-cost), Breis Fluglinie (mid-size), and Kontinental (largest).
Siegen has the largest port in the world, with the rivers Saan and Breis providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to the heartland of Illypnia. As of 2014, Siegen was the world's largest container port handling 850 million metric tonnes of cargo annually. The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. Breisland has also one of the most extensive waterway network in the world with 42,261 kilometers of waterways.
The Breislandic energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per year. Energy consumption per capita is 7.8 tons (7076 kg) of oil equivalent per year, the 10th highest rate in the world. In 2012, 36% of this energy came from petroleum, 21% from coal, and 18% from natural gas. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power (17%) and renewable energy sources (8%). Breisland is the world's largest consumer of petroleum.
Science and technology
Historically, indigenous Breislandic people descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there in the Antiquity. Breisland has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Siegen having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the 1670s. In 1950 there were probably fewer than 150,000 non-white residents in Breisland, almost all born overseas.
Since 1948 substantial immigration from Kaftia, Northeastern Illypnia and Fosia has been a legacy of ties forged by the Breislandic Empire. Migration from neighboring countries, especially Kalinova, since the late 1990s has resulted in growth in these population groups, although some of this migration has been temporary. Since the 1990s, there has been substantial diversification of the immigrant population, with migrants to Breisland coming from a much wider range of countries than previous waves, which tended to involve larger numbers of migrants coming from a relatively small number of countries.
The 2014 census officially recognized six ethnic and racial categories: Weißhaut (Whites), Schwarzhaut (Black), Braunhaut (Brown), Gelbhaut (Yellow), Rothaut (Reds), and Mixed or people of two or more races. The Breislandic Federal Government also classifies Breislandics as "Slavs" and "Not Slav", which identifies Slavs as a racially diverse ethnicity that composes the largest minority group in the nation.
Whites are the racial majority. Browns are the largest racial minority, amounting to 8.2% of the population. Slavs amount to 15% of the population, making up the largest ethnic minority. The White, non-Slav population make up 62.6% of the nation's total, with the total White population (including White Slavs) being 77%.