Aetolia

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Aetolia
Αιτωλία
Aitolía
Flag of Aetolia Seal of Aetolia
Flag Seal
Motto: Ελευθερία, Ισότητα, Δικαιοσύνi
"Freedom, Equality, Justice"
Anthem: Παιάνας των Ληδήνης
"Paean of the Ledenes"
Location of Aetolia in Adonia
Capital
and largest city
Palaiochori
Official languages Aetolian
Recognised regional languages Mesonjean
Sakalian
Varkan
Demonym Aetolian
Government Democratic communalist constitutional semi-presidential federal republic
 -  President Tryfon Iordanou
 -  Prime Minister Dimitrios Antoniou
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house Representative Assembly
Constitutional history
 -  First Republic 1099 
 -  Kingdom 1415 
 -  Provisional Republic 1789 
 -  Second Republic 1794 
Area
 -  Total 150,992 km2
58,298.34 sq mi
Population
 -  2016 estimate 40,314,864 (TBC)
 -  2016 census 40,314,864
 -  Density 267/km2
691.53/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total ₭1.761 trillion
 -  Per capita ₭43,678
Gini (2014)1.00
low
HDI (2014)1.00
very high
QLI (2014)5.00 low
IEF (2014)1.00 Repressed
Currency Drachma (Δρ) (AED)
Time zone (TUC+0)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy CE
Drives on the right
Calling code +43
ISO 3166 code AE
Internet TLD .ae, .αι

Aetolia (Aetolian: Αιτωλία, translit. Aitolía), officially the Republic of Aetolia (Aetolian: Δημοκρατία της Αιτωλίας, translit. Dimokratía tis Aitolías), is a federal republic of roughly 40 million people in northwestern Illypnia. It is bordered by the Anemodian Sea to the north, Salutia, Kotcija and the Sea of Aetolia to the east, Sakalia to the south, and Varkana and the Iremian Sea to the west. The territory of Aetolia covers 150,992 square kilometres and has a hot-summer Mediterranean and humid subtropical climate. Aetolia's terrain is moderately mountainous, lying on the Ledennic Peninsula; and its highest point is ??? metres. The majority of the population speak various local dialects of Aetolian as their native language, and Aetolian in its standard form is the country's official language. Other local spoken languages are Varkan, Kasian, Mesonjean and Sakalian.

Aetolia is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising 25 federal districts. The largest city, with a population exceeding 5 million, is Palaiochori. Aetolia is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $??,??? (2012 est.). The country has developed a high standard of living and in 2011 was ranked ??th in the world for its Human Development Index. Aetolia was a founding member of the Adonian Community in 1944, and is also a member of numerous other international institutions.

During the classical era, independent kingdoms became established in what is now Aetolia following the collapse of the ancient empire. The kingdoms of Kavala and Pheres consolidated the Aetolian peoples and languages through a unified Kingdom of Aetolia in the late 3rd century. In the early 4th century the Kingdom was replaced by the First republic. The republic reached the peak of its political and economic strength in the 11th–12th centuries, with vast area of cultural and economic influence. This period was regarded as the first Golden age of Aetolian technology and society. The territorial reach of Aetolia also expanded to cover most of the Dinarides region, including neighboring Varkana. During this period Aetolia became a dominant regional force. In 1415, the monarchy was restored after 406 years, signalling an era of direct rule which lead to unprecedented territorial and economic expansion. The 18th century was a period marked by political unrest in Aetolia. In 1758, Varkana started a war for independence from Aetolia, the Varkan Restoration War, and formed the First Republic of Varkana in 1760. Successive territorial losses and breaches of power, particularly when the parliament was dissolved by the monarch, led to rising discontent among officials and the populace. These events led to the August Revolution of 1789, when the monarchy was again disposed. The judicial branch of government assumed power, leading the "kritarchic republic" which drafted a new constitution and restructured many institutions of governnment. Symbolic events in this period included the demolition of the Royal Palace in Palaiochori, and the execution of the royal family. The Second Republic of Aetolia was established in 1794. The new republic became a strongly established parliamentary democracy, leading a period of economic and cultural prosperity after 50 years of war. The new republic was increasingly imperialist, engaging in many colonization wars around Adonia. The colonial empire reached its peak in the 20th century and experienced rapid decline following the independence of NAME 1, NAME 2 and NAME 3. However, the global presence had left a large Aetolian-speaking legacy in several former colonies. In 2000, as part of the Quiet Revolution, Aetolia began a transition to a democratic communalist system, while still maintaining the traditional state corporatist system.

Aetolia is strategically located in the middle of Western Illypnia and remains a global power with significant cultural, economic, and political influence in Illypnia and around Adonia. Aetolia citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, civil liberties, and human development. Aetolia is a founding member of the Adonian Community and is also a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Adonian Council of Energy and Energy Standard Organization.

Etymology

In Varkan, Aetolia is known as saberdzneti (საბერძნეთი) since ancient times. Berdzeni (ბერძენი) was a name for people who lived in the various city states of the Aetolian peninsula. Later the name saberdzneti came to mean simply "Aetolia" and berdzeni "the Aetolians". Saberdzneti literally means "Land of the Berdzens" (i.e. "Land of the Aetolians). Berdzeni was coined from the Varkan word "wise" brdzeni (ბრძენი), thus saberdzneti would literally mean "land where the wise men live", possibly referring to the Ancient Aetolia philosophy.

History

Geography

Government

Political parties

Law and Justice

Aetolia has a common law system based on ancient Aetolian law. The Supreme Court of Aetolia is the Aetolian Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. The court system consists of several tiers. At the lowest level, there is a Magistrates Court for minor civil and criminal matters, the next level is the District Court, which has a branch in the capital of each federal district. The district court handles most legal matters that exceed the jurisdiction of the Magistrates Court, crimes such as murder however, are heard by the High Court. The High Court of Aetolia is the highest civil and criminal court which may hear cases deemed to require a higher level of judicial scrutiny, such as murder cases.

There are also two appeals courts in Aetolia. The first-level is the Court of Appeals, which hears the all cases that have been appealed from the District and High courts. The second the Supreme Court, which looks at extraordinary cases from the Court of Appeals that are being appealed.

Foreign relations

Military

Administrative divisions

Aetolia is divided into 25 federal districts. These districts each have a local parliament, led by a head of government known as a Premier. Each district is responsible for the management and provision of its own emergency services, transport, water and education. Each district has the residual authority to legislate over all areas of its affairs, except those that are handled exclusively by the federal government, such as foreign affairs and defense.

Federal districts are further divided into regions, which are non-administrative divisions used for statistics and federal government purposes, there is no level of government devolved to these regions. They generally consist of ten to fiftteen municipalities, which are the next level of administrative division in Aetolia. A municipality is the lowest level of government devolution in Aetolia, and generally consists of a large town, or several smaller towns. They are governed by a Municipal Council, with the leader being the Mayor. There are approximately 4,500 municipalities in Aetolia, with the major cities consisting many suburban and urban municipalities.

Large urban municipalities can further be divided into boroughs, which can have varying levels of governance and jurisdiction. Some function as smaller municipalities, such as those in Palaiochori, with a Borough Council and the management of waste and water provision, although all decisions made by boroughs can be overruled by the municipality and their authority is derived from the municipality.

Economy

A Trakas Exousia. Aetolia maintains an innovative automotive industry, and is a large exporter of manufactured goods.

Aetolia has a mixed economy, ranking as the ??-largest in Illypnia and the ??-largest in the world. The country is a founding member of the Mesogean Cooperation Organization and the Energy Standard Organization.

Aetolia is regarded as one of the world's most industrialized nations and a leading country in world trade and exports, owing to the country's strong mercantile history. It is a highly developed country, with the world's ?th highest quality of life and ranked ??th highest in Human Development Index. The country is well known for its creative and innovative business, a large and competitive agricultural sector (Aetolian is one of the world's largest wine and stonefruit producers), and for its influential and high-quality automobile, machinery, food, design industry.

Aetolia is Illypnia's ??? largest manufacturing country, characterized by a small number of global multinational corporations and a large number of smaller specialist industrial co-operatives, generally clustered in the industrial districts of major cities, which form the backbone of Aetolian industry. This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export of niche market and luxury products. The competitiveness of Aetolian products is based on the high levels of quality and technical innovation.

The country is the world's ?th largest exporter. Aetolia's closest trade ties are with the other countries located nearby in Illypnia, with whom it conducts about ??% of its total trade. Its largest trading partners, in order of market share, are Breisland (13.9%), Echia (9.8%), Salutia (9.2%), Volisania (9.1%), and Varkana (7.3%). Tourism is one of the fastest growing and profitable sectors of the economy, it has had a long history but has experienced recent growth: with 58.4 million international tourist arrivals and total receipts estimated at ₭66.3 billion in 2016, Aetolia was one of the most visited countries in the world as well as on of the highest earners from tourism.

Aetolia is a user of the energy standard to back the national currency, the drachma. As such it is a member of the Energy Standard Organization, which regulates the system.

In 2016, the national unemployment rate was 5.2 percent.

Energy

Agriculture

Maritime industry

Tourism

Transport

ΣAK EMR Class high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h (249 mph), is the fastest train in Aetolia and the Dinarides.
The transport sector in Aetolia generated a turnover of about 80.9 billion krone, employing 723,600 people in 62,900 different enterprises. The national road network, as of 2015, has 589,123 km (370,000 mi) of serviceable roads in Aetolia, including 5,978 km (3,700 mi) of motorways, state-owned and operated by the Aetolian Transport Agency. In 2015, about 23,382,120 passenger cars (580 cars per 1,000 people) and 4,419,500 goods vehicles circulated on the national road network.

The national railway network is state-owned and operated by Aetolian State Railways. In 2015 the network consisted of 13,023 km (8,100 mi) of track, of which 10,027 km (6,230 mi) is electrified, and on which 4,538 locomotives and railcars run.

The national inland waterways network comprised 1,532 km (950 mi) of navigable rivers, canals and channels in 2015. In 2015 there were approximately 20 main airports (including the two major hubs of Antoninus International in Theodosia and Skopelos International Airport) and 30 major seaports (including the seaport of Palaiochori, the country's largest and largest on the Iremian Sea). In 2015 Aetolia had a civilian air fleet of about 529,000 units and the second largest merchant fleet in the world of 4,561 ships.

Telecommunications

Science and technology

Demographics

Cities

Migration

Religion

Languages

Education

Health

Culture

Theatre

Philosophy

Literature

Cinema

Cuisine

Music and dances

Sports

Sport is generally popular in Aetolia, both for spectators and players. High percentages of the population participate in social sporting teams for a variety of sports.

There is a national professional association football league, the Aetolian Premier League (Aitolikis Prémier Link, AΠΛ), which is the most popular league (by viewers) in Aetolia. There are teams competing from most major cities, with some cities having several teams.

Mythology

Public holidays and festivals